African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12196

Table of Content: 1 January, 2014; 13(1)

January 2014

A review on diagnostic techniques for brucellosis

Brucellosis presents with many clinical manifestation that make its diagnosis a difficult task. Ever since the report of the first serologic test for brucellosis, a definitive diagnostic technique has been actively pursued. The most widely used methods of diagnosis are based on serology, which measures the ability of the serum (antibody) to agglutinate a standardised amount of killed Brucella abortus (antigen)...

Author(s): B. Y. Kaltungo, S. N. A. Saidu, A. K. B. Sackey and H. M. Kazeem

January 2014

Toxin-antitoxin systems and its biotechnological applications

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are important genetic modules composed by two elements: a toxin, that is always a protein, and an antitoxin, that can be a RNA or a protein and neutralizes the toxic effect of toxin. These systems are widespread in bacteria and archaea, found on plasmids and chromosomes. According to the nature of the antitoxin and its mode of interaction with the toxin, TA systems are grouped into five...

Author(s): Luiz Carlos Bertucci Barbosa, Alex Sânder Rodrigues Cangussu, Saulo Santesso Garrido and Reinaldo Marchetto

January 2014

Genetic diversity analysis in the Hypericum perforatum populations in the Kashmir valley by using inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers

Assessment of genetic variability among the Hypericum perforatum populations is critical to the development of effective conservation strategies in the Kashmir valley. To obtain accurate estimates of genetic diversity among and within populations of H. perforatum, inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used. The study was aimed to check, whether ISSR fingerprinting may be a useful tool for studying genetic...

Author(s): Shazia Farooq, M. A. Siddiqui, P. C. Ray, M. Q. Sheikh, Sheikh Shahnawaz, M. Ashraf Bhat, M. R. Mir, M. Z. Abdin, Imtiyaz Ahmad, Jamsheed Javid, Prasant Yadav, M. Masroor, Mariyam Zuberi, Alpana Saxena and Rashid Mir

January 2014

In silico mining of micro-RNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenously, non-coding genes that regulate protein production either by mRNA cleavage or by translational repression in eukaryotes and viruses. miRNAs plays a key role in biological processes including growth, development and physiology of an organism. In this study, we employed insilico approaches to identify the miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda, a major pest of small grain crops. A...

Author(s): R. Asokan, H. K. Roopa, K. B. Rebijith, H. H. Ranjitha and N. K. Krishna Kumar

January 2014

Genetic structure and variability within and among populations of the fat-tailed Barbarine sheep breed using microsatellites markers

This study investigates the genetic diversity and the structure of the most dominant native fat-tailed Tunisian sheep breed (Barbarine, BAR) using microsatellite markers. Blood samples from 183 BAR animals, belonging to 4 subpopulations according to phenotypic traits, were collected across all regions in Tunisia. BAR animals and 31 Appenninica Italian sheep breed (APP) used as an out-group were genotyped at 17...

Author(s): Y. Ben Sassi-Zaidy, F. Maretto, E. Zanetti, G. M. Hajji, F. Charfi-Cheikrouha and M. Cassandro

January 2014

In vitro regeneration through adventitious buds in Wattakaka volubilis, a rare medicinal plant

High frequency shoot regeneration from in vitro derived leaf explants of Wattakaka volubilis (L.f.) Stapf was achieved through callus mediated organogenesis. Organogenic calli were induced from 20 day old aseptic seedling explants on Murashige and Skoog medium fortified with various concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators, benzylaminopurine (BAP), α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole 3-butyric...

Author(s): T. Chakradhar and T. Pullaiah

January 2014

Effect of electric field (at different temperatures) on germination of chickpea seed

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds were exposed to electric field from zero to 1300 V for 15 min at three different temperatures (13, 16 and 19°C). It was found that the exposure of chickpea seeds to the electric field caused a change in water uptake capacity (and its coefficient) as compared to control. A new theoretical model for water uptake was developed and verified experimentally. Experiments were performed at...

Author(s): T. S. Mahajan and O. P. Pandey

January 2014

Municipal solid waste and NPK fertilizer effects on soil physical properties and maize performance in Nsukka, Southeast Nigeria

A study was carried out in the experimental farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka to determine the effect of composted Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) on some soil physical properties and also the effect of combined application of MSW and NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer on maize. Four rates of MSW; 0, 1000, 1500 and 2000 kg/ha and four rates of NPK fertilizer; 0, 100, 200 and 300 kg/ha were tested....

Author(s): Onwudiwe, N., Benedict, O. U., Ogbonna, P. E and Ejiofor, E. E

January 2014

Electromagnetic field in corn grain production and health

The effect of electromagnetic field on agricultural characteristics, yield and health conditions of corn hybrids was assessed using biophysical methods, in order to improve production and health of maize grain (Zea mays L.) for human consumption. The seed was exposed to electromagnetic field at an intensity of 480 mT. Hybrids San Juan and San Jose and five times of exposure (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 min) were evaluated, as...

Author(s): Rosalba Zepeda-Bautista, Claudia Hernández-Aguilar, Francisco Suazo-López, Arturo F. Domínguez-Pacheco, Juan Virgen-Vargas, Cristina Pérez-Reyes and Ignacio Peón-Escalante

January 2014

Effects of summer and dormant pruning time on the vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality and carbohydrate contents of two peach cultivars

Mature “Earlyred” and Glohaven” peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] trees on peach seedling rootstocks were dormant and summer pruned (June, July, August and September). Average shoot length was lower in the second year than in first year; whereas, shoot diameter was higher in the second year than in first year. Summer pruning treatments reduced shoot growth, but increased shoot diameter. Generally, the...

Author(s): Ali İkinci, Ali Kuden and Bekir Erol AK

January 2014

Effect of nitrogen on rice yield, yield components and quality parameters

Effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on yield and yield components of rice (Hashemi, Ali kazemi and Khazar) was investigated in an experiment as factorial in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications in a paddy light soil at Guilan province, Iran, in the year 2008 to 2009. In this experiment, four treatments including: N1, control (no N fertilizer); N2, 30 kg N/ha; N3, 60 kg N/ha; N4, 90 kg...

Author(s): Mandana Tayefe, Akif Gerayzade, Ebrahim amiri and Azin Nasrollah Zade

January 2014

Induction of mutations in Browallia speciosa using sodium azide and identification of the genetic variation by peroxidase isozyme

Plants of Browallia speciosa were treated with different concentrations of sodium azide (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 ppm) as a soil drench. The concentration of 800 ppm had simulative effect on the most studied traits. It increased the number of branches and leaves, chlorophyll content, fresh weights of vegetative growth and roots, dry weights of vegetative growth and roots and root length in the M1 (2011/ 2012) and ...

Author(s): El-Mokadem, Hoda E. and Mostafa, Gehan G.

January 2014

Polygenic variations and cause effect relationship in some photo-insensitive recombinant inbred lines (RIL’s) of Basmati derivative

The present investigation consisted 18 photo-insensitive recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of Basmati derivative developed through disruptive seasonal selection and two check varieties raised during Kharif 2010 to study the polygenic variations in yield and yield attributing characters and their cause and effect relationship. Seven RILs viz., Bidhan Moti 6, 10, 11, 15, 23 and 30 surpassed the check varieties that is,...

Author(s): Ashutosh Sawarkar and  B. K. Senapati

January 2014

Genetic effects of combining ability studies for yield and fibre quality traits in diallel crosses of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

The present study was carried out to investigate the diallel analysis in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) by involving seven parents and their 42 cross combinations. All the characters were predominantly controlled by additive gene action except number of sympodial branches, single plant yield and bundle strength. Non additive gene action was controlled for the characters sympodial branches, single plant yield and...

Author(s): K. Senthil Kumar, K. Ashokkumar, and R. Ravikesavan

January 2014

Low dose of ultra violet (UV)-B adaptation enhances yield in rice somaclones

In vitro regenerated rice (Oryza sativa cv. ADT 43) plantlets under ultraviolet-B selection showed altered growth and yield responses. Of the two sets of calli treated with low (10 min d-1) as well as high (30 min d-1) dose of ultraviolet-B (313 nm), shoots regenerated from low dose ultraviolet-B treatment evinced increased growth and yield. Panicle length and the number of grains were highest in ultraviolet-B (10 min)...

Author(s): Sethuraman Ramakrishnan, and Govindasamy Kulandaivelu

January 2014

Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus by guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth) and jucá (Libidibia ferrea Mart) extracts

In the present study, fruits extracts (Paullinia cupana K. & Libidibia ferrea M. - guaraná & jucá, respectively) of the Amazon Region were tested for antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activities against Aspergillus parasiticus using the agar dilution method. The treatments utilized were at three different concentrations (1.08, 1.62 and 3.24%). The effect on both extracts on growth diameter of fungal...

Author(s): Maristela Martins, Ariane Mendonca Kluczkovski , Tatiane Pereira de Souza, Carolina Pacheco Geovana Dagostim Savi and Vildes Maria Scussel

January 2014

Extraction, characterization and its antioxidant efficacy of polysaccharides from Sepia aculeata (Orbigny, 1848) cuttlebone

Ocean is the source of large group of structurally unique natural products that are mainly found in invertebrates such as sponges, tunicates, bryozoans and mollusks. In the present study, polysaccharide was extracted from the cuttlebone of Sepia aculeata and the structure was determined through Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy. Then, the antioxidant efficacy was evaluated through various antioxidant assays such...

Author(s): Namasivayam Subhapradha, Pasiyappazham Ramasamy, Palaniappan Seedevi, Vairamani Shanmugam, Alagiri Srinivasan and Annaian Shanmugam

January 2014

Production of cellulases by Penicillium sp. in a solid-state fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch

To use oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) for cellulase production, a novel fungus was isolated from moistened EFB. This fungus was classified as Penicillium sp. by sequence analysis of the internal transcribing space and it was named Penicillium sp. GDX01. The Penicillium sp. strain secreted cellulases under solid-state fermentation of EFB. The fermentation conditions were optimized for maximal enzyme production. Of the...

Author(s): Do-Myoung Kim, Eun Ji Cho, Ji Won Kim, Yong-Woog Lee and Hwa-Jee Chung

January 2014

Anti-oxidative potentials of some medicinal plants on lipid peroxidation in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia and if not properly controlled, culminates in increased oxidative stress and decrease in anti-oxidant levels. The leaves of Psidium guajava, Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus and fruits of Xylopia aethiopica are used in the management of diabetes mellitus and thus, their anti-oxidative effects in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wister...

Author(s): GOMETI, Ajiroghene S., OGUGUA, Victor N., JOSHUA, Parker E., ODO, Christian E., NDUKA, Florence O. and ORHONIGBE, Innocent O.

January 2014

Effects of cell phone radiation on the levels of T3, T4 and TSH, and histological changes in thyroid gland in rats treated with Allium sativum extract

Recent increase of hormonal disorders in human may be correlated to the increased exposure to electromagnetic fields produced by various instruments, including cell phones. Because of its position in the body, thyroid gland is one of the organs most likely to be exposed to cell phone radiation. The aim of this study was to assess the adverse effects of cell phone radiation along with the protective effects of garlic on...

Author(s): B. Hajioun, H. Jowhari and M. Mokhtari

January 2014

Antihyperglycemic activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of Pergularia daemia Linn.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of Pergularia daemia in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods used was methanol and aqueous extracts (250 mg/kg b.w.) of P. daemia was administered to alloxan induced diabetic mice for 21 days and blood glucose levels of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of hours and days throughout the duration of the...

Author(s): A. Doss and S. P. Anand

January 2014

Evaluation of alterations in the urine biochemical profiles of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Southwest, Nigeria

Diabetic nephropathy is a major sign of kidney dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. The identification of biochemical markers for the clinical course of kidney dysfunction in diabetes mellitus remains a major challenge in the disease management. We investigated the changes in 24 h urine excretion of biochemical indices of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We estimated 24 h urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, bicarbonate,...

Author(s): Oyebola Ganiyu Adeosun, John Ibhagbemien Anetor, Jayeola O. Ogunlewe, Rosemary Temidayo Ikem, Babatope Ayodeji Kolawole, Fatiu A. Arogundade and Samuel O. Oyedeji

January 2014

Study on Salmonella contamination in poultry lean meat and meat with skin in Tabriz slaughter houses

Some microorganisms such as Salmonella, Listeria and Campylobacter cause foodborne diseases in human, which some control and food safety measures are not able to prevent. However, it is necessary to devise new systems for achieving this target. The purpose of this study was to determine Salmonella contamination through cross contamination of meat in slaughtering premises. For this study, a total of 50 samples were taken...

Author(s): Javadi Afshin, Safarmashaei Saeid and Ghadimi Reza

January 2014

Effects of different levels of date pits in broilers’ feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 on broilers’ performance and carcass characteristic

The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of date pits (DP) to reduce the deleterious effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chicks. A total of 216 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were distributed randomly for nine treatments (with four replicates and six birds in each) for 35 days. The experiment included a 3×3 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three levels of DP (0, 2 and 4%)...

Author(s): Fahimeh Daneshyar, Nazar Afzali and Homayoun Farhangfar