African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12182

Table of Content: 22 March 2010; 9(12)

March 2010

Construction of a reliable model pyranometer for irradiance measurements

There is a problem of availability of sufficient and functional instruments for measuring solar radiation in Nigeria due to the high importation costs and maintenance. In order to alleviate this problem, the design, construction and testing of a reliable model pyranometer (RMP001) was done in Mubi, Adamawa State of Nigeria. Detailed instructions were provided for assembly and calibration. Bearing cost, photodiode...

Author(s): Medugu, D. W., Burari, F. W. and Abdulazeez, A. A.

March 2010

An efficient transformation system of taxol-producing endophytic fungus EFY-21 (Ozonium sp.)

EFY-21 (Ozonium sp.) is a newly isolated taxol-producing endophytic fungus fromTaxus chinensis var. mairei. In this study, an efficient PEG-mediated transformation of EFY-21 was established and conditions for transformation were evaluated. By the optimized enzyme system, mycelium age, digesting temperature and time, over 7 × 107 ml protoplasts were obtained and protoplast regeneration...

Author(s): Yamin Wei, Xuanwei Zhou, Lu Liu, Jie Lu, Zinan Wang, Geng Yu, Lingchuan Hu , Juan Lin, Xiaofen Sun and Kexuan Tang,

March 2010

Cloning of taxadiene synthase gene into Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype Columbia-0)

Paclitaxel (Taxol), a complex diterpenoid, produced by yew tree (Taxus sp.) is the most important chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used against a variety of malignancies such as ovarian and breast cancers. However, destructive...

Author(s): Sajjad Khani, Mohammad Mehdi Sohani, Nasser Mahna, Jaleh Barar, Mohammad Saeed Hejazi, Hossein Nazemieh, Sina Atashpaz, Mohammad Reza Dadpour, and Yadollah Omidi,

March 2010

A phylogenetic analysis of Jurinea (Compositae) species from Turkey based on ITS sequence data

In this study, the taxa which belong to the Jurinea Cass. genus, grown naturally in Turkey and collected from different localities, are compared in terms of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA). The DNAs of the taxa were isolated by using a commercial kit (Nucleon Phytopure). Sequences were aligned with Clustal X. Phylogenetic relationships are assessed by sequence...

Author(s): Bekir Dogan, E. Erdogan Hakki and Ahmet Duran

March 2010

Analysis of genetic diversity of muga silkworm (Antheraea assamensis, Helfer; Lepidoptera : Saturniidae) using RAPD-based molecular markers

Eleven populations of muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Helfer, the golden silk yarn producer of northeast India, was subjected to RAPD marker analysis in order to assess its genetic diversity. The genomic DNA extracted from muga silkworms were analysed using 50 random primers among which 36 polymorphic primers generated 309 bands. RAPD profile of the isolated DNA revealed a high level of...

Author(s): Kartik Neog, H. Ranjit Singh, Balagopalan Unni and A. K. Sahu

March 2010

Simultaneous detection of Apple mosaic virus in cultivated hazelnuts by one-tube RT-PCR

The most economically damaging ilarvirus affecting hazelnut on a worldwide scale is the related apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Attempts were made to isolate the virus RNA from hazelnut tissues using different extraction methods. The most suitable extraction method that could detect the virus occurring naturally in hazelnut by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methodology was selected. RT-PCR was...

Author(s): Birol Akbas and Kemal Degirmenci

March 2010

Assessment of genetic and biochemical diversity of ecologically variant ectomycorrhizal Russula sp. from India

The aim of this study was to develop the phylogenetic relationship amongst the ecologically variant Russula species by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based technique, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and isozyme analyses. Two groups could be characterized amongst the total isolates by cluster analyses. Protease, cellulase, glutamate dehydrogenase, pectinase and acid phosphatase designated band...

Author(s): M. K. Upadhyay, Devendra Jain, Abhijeet Singh, A. K. Pandey and R. C. Rajak

March 2010

The effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in sunflower germination and seedling grown under salinity conditions

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of NaCl priming with KNO3on the germination traits and seedling growth of four Helianthus annuus L. cultivars under salinity conditions. Seeds of four spring sunflower (Armawireski, Airfloure, Alestar and Ismailli) were primed with KNO3 (-1.0 M Pa) for 24 h in continuous 30°C. Primed (P) and un-primed (NP) seeds were cultured in medium grade...

Author(s): Ahmad Afkari Bajehbaj

March 2010

Resistance comparison of domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) and wild silkworm (Bombyx mandarina M.) to phoxim insecticide

In this study, the resistance difference to phoxim between Bombyx mori L. andBombyx mandarina M was investigated.  For the both silkworm species, the whole body of each larval were collected, and on the third day of the 5th instar, the brain, midgut, fat bodies, and silk gland were collected for enzymatic activity assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Our results showed that in the early larval...

Author(s): Bing Li, Yanhong Wang, Haitao Liu, YaXiang Xu, Zhengguo Wei, YuHua Chen, and Weide Shen,  

March 2010

Effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge solubilization and enzyme activity

The effect of ultrasonic specific energy on waste activated sludge (WAS) solubilization and enzyme activity was investigated in this study. Experimental results showed that the increase of ultrasonic specific energy in the range of 0 - 90000 kJ/kg dried sludge (DS) benefited WAS particle size reduction and the solubilization of organic matter in WAS. The changes of ultrasonic specific energy also gave impact...

Author(s): Yuanyuan Yan, Leiyu Feng, Chaojie Zhang, Hongguang Zhu and Qi Zhou

March 2010

Response of grasslands conversion to croplands on soil organic carbon in Bashang area of Northern China

This study investigated the effects of two types of grasslands conversion to croplands on soil organic carbon (SOC) in Bashang area where it is a typical agro-pastoral ecotone of Northern China using a pare-site method. The results showed that the SOC contents and densities decreased with increasing soil depth. The soil bulk density and SOC content significantly decreased in the upper horizon after the grasslands was...

Author(s): Hong-Lai Liu,#, Jun-Wei Wang,#, Jin-Ying Lv and Kun Wang,

March 2010

Application of selected biological control agents in conjunction with tolclofos-methyl for the control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani

Selected Trichoderma and Bacillus isolates were tested as seed treatments with reduced concentrations of tolclofos-methyl against Rhizoctonia solani damping-off using cucumber as test plants. In vitro bioassays using filter paper disc infused with six concentrations [active ingredient (ai)] of tolclofos-methyl (0.005, 0.05, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.5 g ai/l) showed that growth...

Author(s): K. S. Yobo, M. D. Laing and C. H. Hunter

March 2010

Milk-clotting potential of fruit extracts from Solanum esculentum, Solanum macrocarpon L. and Solanum melongena

Fruit extracts from Solanum esculentum, Solanum macrocarpon L. and Solanum melongena were tested for their milk-clotting potential. The release of substances associated with milk-clotting was highly dependent upon quantity of berries, extraction duration and sodium chloride concentration. The highest milk-clotting activity was obtained after 8 h (for S. esculentum and S....

Author(s): V. D. Guiama, D. G. Libouga, E. Ngah,  R. G. Beka, K. C. Ndi, B. Maloga, J. M. Bindzi, P. Donn and C. M. Mbofung

March 2010

Influence of ginger on sensory properties and shelf-life of ogi, a Nigerian traditional fermented food

Fruit extracts from Solanum esculentum, Solanum macrocarpon L. and Solanum melongena were tested for their milk-clotting potential. The release of substances associated with milk-clotting was highly dependent upon quantity of berries, extraction duration and sodium chloride concentration. The highest milk-clotting activity was obtained after 8 h (for S. esculentum and S....

Author(s): I.  A.  Adesokan, O. P Abiola and M. O Ogundiya

March 2010

Post harvest changes in physico-chemical properties and levels of some inorganic elements in off vine ripened orange (Citrus sinensis) fruits cv (Navel and Valencia) of Tanzania

Two orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit varieties, Navel and Valencia, from Muheza in Tanga, were analyzed for their proximate composition (ash, acidity, crude fat, crudefibre, sugars and moisture content), ascorbic acid, sugars, concentrations of four macro elements (Ca, Mg, K, Na) and seven heavy metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn). The oranges had high moisture content (>68%), moderate titratable acidity (0.60...

Author(s): Mbogo Gloria P., Mubofu Egid B. and Othman Chande C.

March 2010

Effect of tomato internal structure on its mechanical properties and degree of mechanical damage

As different tomatoes have different locular cavities and a particular tomato materialis inhomogeneous, the effect of tomato internal structure on its mechanical properties and degree of mechanical damage may be significant during the gripping process with robot fingers. This was studied using the loading-unloading experiment as well as the observation of shelf life. The results showed that the plastic strain...

Author(s): Zhiguo Li, Pingping Li and Jizhan Liu

March 2010

Lipid oxidation in fresh and stored eggs enriched with dietary ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E and A dosages

Two experiments were planned to study the influence of dietary fat sources (fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil (SO)) and dietary doses of α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TA) (0, 60 and 120 mg/kg of feed) and vitamin A (0 IU, 10000 IU and 20000 IU) on lipid oxidation of stored eggs in three stages of 0 or...

Author(s): Habib Aghdam Shahryar, Ramin Salamatdoust, Saeid Chekani-Azar, Farhan Ahadi and Tohid Vahdatpoor

March 2010

Octreotide decreases portal pressure: Hepatic stellate cells may play a pivotal role

The aim of this study is to elucidate the effects of different dosages of octreotide on portal pressure in cirrhotic patients and to investigate the mechanism of activated human hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) on octreotide. Thirty-one (31) hepatitis B-related cirrhotic patients were randomly assigned to receive treatment with a 50 (group A, n = 12) or a 25 µg/h infusion of octreotide for 72 h (group B, n = 14); the...

Author(s): Yun Zhai#, Juan Zhang,#, Hong-wei Shang, Shi-chun Lu, Meng-long Wang, Hong You, Ji-dong Jia and Hui-guo Ding,

March 2010

Sublethal effects of industrial chemicals on fish fingerlings (Tilapia guineensis)

Tilapia guineensis commonly found in the Niger Delta ecological zone of Nigeria was exposed to sublethal concentrations (1.56, 3.13 mg/l) of neatex (industrial detergent) and norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 protocol. At test termination on the 28th day, the rate of bioaccumulation of surfactants in the fish gills, gut and...

Author(s): Ogeleka, D. F., Ezemonye, L. I. N. and Okieimen F. E.

March 2010

The use of cold shock in inducing triploidy in African mud catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

A study was conducted to induce triploidy in African mud catfish Clarias gariepinususing cold shock. The fertilized eggs were exposed at one temperature regime of0°C with varied shock treatments of 0, 15, 25 and 30 min. Some 3 min after fertilization, the success of triploidy was determined by the presence or absence of bent trunk in the fry as reported by (Aluko et...

Author(s): A. M. Hammed, H. A. Fashina-Bombata and A. O. Osinaike

March 2010

Anti-HIV-1 protease activities of crude extracts of some Garcinia species growing in Tanzania

Eighteenth ethanol extracts from some Garcinia species in the Guttiferae (Clusiaceae) family collected in Tanzania were investigated for their HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitory activities using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among the tested extracts, the fruit hulls of Garcinia semseii showed the most potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 PR with an IC50 value of 5.7...

Author(s): Joseph J. Magadula and Supinya Tewtrakul

March 2010

The influence of age on the exploitation period in broiler reproduction of parents in Ross hybrid 308

These investigations were intended to identify the influence of parental flock age at heavy hybrid Ross 308 (usage period) on more important reproductive capabilities (carrying eggs intensity of brood eggs, egg mass, one day old chick mass, relative chick mass share in complete egg mass) and consumption of food per processed – hatched chicken (final product of production cycle). Flock usage period lasted for 40...

Author(s): Sreten Mitrovic, Vladan Djermanovic and Vera Djekic