African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12275

Table of Content: 25 March 2015; 14(12)

March 2015

Genetic diversity of grape germplasm as revealed by microsatellite (SSR) markers

In this work, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the genetic diversity and relationships among 49 grape germplasm accessions analyzed with 19 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. In total, 139 polymorphic loci were detected among these accessions with an average of 7.32 polymorphic loci per SSR primer pair. The average values for the effective number of alleles, Nei’s...

Author(s): Lei Wang, Juan Zhang, Linde Liu, Li Zhang, Lijuan Wei and Dechang Hu

March 2015

Germination and in vitro multiplication of Helianthemum kahiricum, a threatened plant in Tunisia arid areas

Seeds of Helianthemum kahiricum have an excellent germination rate extending to about 90% within short time not more than four days after scarification (mechanical treatment) and a good protocol of disinfection. A high frequency of sprouting and shoot differentiation was observed in the primary cultures of nodal explants of H. kahiricum on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) free growth...

Author(s): HAMZA Amina and NEFFATI Mohamed

March 2015

Characterization of a hemorrhage-inducing component present in Bitis arietans venom

Better characterization of individual snake venom toxins is useful for analyzing the association of their toxic domains and relevant antigenic epitopes. Here we analyzed the Bitis arietans hemorrhagic-inducing toxin present in a representative venom sample. Among the 1´ to 5´ protein peaks isolated using a Sephacryl S 100 HR chromatography column, hemorrhagic activity was expressed by all according to the...

Author(s): Tahís Louvain de Souza, Fábio C. Magnoli and Wilmar Dias da Silva

March 2015

Effects of temperature, light, desiccation and cold storage on germination of Sophora tonkinensis (Leguminosae) seeds

Identification of the seed storage behaviour of a target species is essential prior to seed storage so that suitable storage strategies are taken. In the present experiments, germination characteristics, desiccation, and low temperature tolerance of seeds of Sophora tonkinensis was studied; a traditional Chinese medicine on the edge of extinction, were investigated for the first time in attempt to interpret their...

Author(s): X. Pu, Y.F. Huang, C.L. Pan, L. Yao, X.R. Ai and Z. J. Deng,

March 2015

Effect of water deficit on Argan tree seedlings (Argania spinosa L. Skeels): Morphological and physiological aspect

The Argan tree, Argania spinosa L., Skeels, is an endemic species in North-West Africa perfectly adapted to aridity and drought. It is in this context that we studied the physiological impact of water deficit on the Argan tree seedlings for eight weeks at a field capacity of 30%. The obtained results reveal that the stressed seedlings manifested by the strategy of the root elongation from the second week, the roots...

Author(s): MESLEM Halima, DJABEUR Abderezzak, KHAROUBI Omar and KAID-HARCHE Meriem

March 2015

Effect of artificially-generated wind on removing guttation and dew droplets from rice leaf surface for controlling rice blast disease

The incidence and severity of leaf and panicle blasts were efficiently reduced in the wind-treated fields. Artificially-generated wind was performed on rice paddy field in order to measure the changes in temperature and humidity during and after the blowing process and to investigate the effects of sending wind on the formation and removal of guttation and dew droplets on rice leaves. A large electric fan was used to...

Author(s): Yoshihiro Taguchi, Mohsen Mohamed Elsharkawy and Mitsuro Hyakumachi

March 2015

Genetic variation of 12 rice cultivars grown in Brunei Darussalam and assessment of their tolerance to saline environment

Genetic variations of 12 different rice cultivars in Brunei Darussalam were studied using 15 different SSR markers and their salinity tolerance mechanism was also assessed. Eight SSR markers, RM 151, 187, 206, 226, 276, 310, 320 and 334, showed polymorphic alleles while the other seven were monomorphic. A total of 158 alleles were amplified for all these rice cultivars using 15 SSR markers, with an average of 10.53. The...

Author(s): Nurul Kahrani Ishak, Zohrah Sulaiman, Kushan U. Tennakoon

March 2015

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Algerian citrus

The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the essential oils of Algerian citrus. They were extracted by hydrodistillation from the leaves of citrus species (orange, Bigaradier, mandarin and lemon), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Their chemical composition and antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., albedinis sp, Penicelium sp.,...

Author(s): Hamdani Fatima Zohra, Allem Rachida , Meziane Malika,  Setti Benali, Ali Arous Samir and Bourai Meriem

March 2015

Chemical composition and anti-diabetic properties of Jatropha curcas leaves extract on alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats

This study evaluates the chemical composition and anti-diabetic properties of fresh and shade dried Jatropha curcas aqueous leaves extracts (JCLE) on alloxan induced diabetic female wistar rats. Seven (7) kg of J. curcas leaves were pulverized and aqueous extracts produced. Thirty five (35) mature female rats were grouped into seven of five animals per group according to their body weights. Blood samples were collected...

Author(s): Nwamarah, J. U., Otitoju, O. and Otitoju, G. T. O.

March 2015

Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of crude extracts and chromatographic fractions of Adenanthera pavonina Linn (Leguminosae) seeds

Most available reports on the biological activity of Adenanthera pavonina (AP) are on the bark or leaves and very few are on the seeds. In particular, there are no reports on the biological effects of the chromatographic fractions of A. pavonina seeds hence the present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the crude extract and chromatographic fractions of A. pavonina seeds. The methanolic extract was...

Author(s): Oluwatofunmilayo A. Adeyemi, Aduragbenro D. Adedapo, Adeolu A. Adedapo and Jones O. Moody

March 2015

Bioepoxidation of isosafrol catalyzed by radish and turnip peroxidases

Peroxidases (PODs) from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and turnip (Brassica napus L.) were extracted and precipitated with ammonium sulfate using a simple, low cost and quick method. The activities of all steps performed by the vegetable PODs were measured via guaiacol assay. The epoxidation of isosafrol, catalyzed by radish (R. sativus L.) and turnip (B. napus L.) peroxidases was conducted in 20% (v/v) aqueous ethanol...

Author(s): Micael Nunes Melo, Lucas Costa Lopes, Cláudio Dariva, Jonathan dos Santos Girardi, Angélica Maria Lucchese, Heiddy Marquez Alvarez and Alini T. Fricks

March 2015

Extra-pulmonary oxidative stress investigations of an over-the-counter pyrethroid insecticide product in rats

Extra-pulmonary oxidative stress investigations of exposure to aerosol, of an over-the-counter pyrethroid insecticide product in Nigeria in Wistar rats were carried out. Four groups of five animals each were used in this study, and were exposed to different concentrations of the insecticide aerosol. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations were determined in the liver, kidney and testes, while...

Author(s): Oluwatobi Temitope Somade, Ayobami Emmanuel Odekunle, Olaide Oluwasaanu and Nkoyo Michael Umanah