African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12218

Table of Content: 28 June 2010; 9(26)

June 2010

Genetic diversity analysis of some exotic, Indian and mutant Brassica sp. through RAPD markers

  Genetic make-up of Brassica crops has been playing a major contributory role towards its enhanced production. The exploitation of genetic variation among races and gene pools in oilseed Brassica is essential as considerable diversity exists in the set of plants. In the present investigation, the isolated DNA from 20 Brassicagenotypes including exotic, Indian and few mutant varieties...

Author(s): S. N. Malode, S. M. Shingnapure, V. N. Waghmare and S. Sutar

June 2010

Evaluation of Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima derived progenies for resistance to rootknot nematode and identification of introgressed alien chromosome segments using SSR markers

  The genus Oryza has two cultivated species, Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) and African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and 22 wild species. O. glaberrima is low yielding but has useful genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Introgression lines derived from backcrossing of O. sativa x O. glaberrima, using O. sativa as recurrent parent, were evaluated...

Author(s): Isaac Kofi Bimpong, Azucena L. Carpena, Merlyn S. Mendioro, Luzviminda Fernandez, Joie Ramos, George Reversat and Darshan S. Brar

June 2010

Combining ability analysis in Brassica juncea L. for oil quality traits

  This study was conducted in Brassica juncea L. for the determination of good combiners for quality associated traits using 8 x 8 diallel during 2004 - 2005 and 2005 - 2006. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) for all the studied traits. Components of combining ability analysis showed that general combining ability (GCA) was highly significant (p ≤ 0.01)...

Author(s): Naushad Ali Turi, Raziuddin, Farhatullah, Naqib Ullah Khan, Iqbal Munir,Abrar Hussain shah and Sajid Khan

June 2010

Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the bovine STAT4 gene and their associations with production traits in Chinese Holstein cattle

  Signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) belongs to the STATs family which may play important roles in the activation of milk protein genes and the development of mammary glands. Four novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (g.2624A>C ss175327225, g.60330A>G ss175327226, g.63823G>C ss175327227, g.66912C>T ss175327228) of the STAT4 gene were...

Author(s): Fenfen Zhang, , Jinming Huang, Qiuling Li, Zhihua Ju, Jiangbin Li, Fangxiong Shi, Jifeng Zhong and Changfa Wang

June 2010

Genetic characterization of mango anthracnose pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis

  Twenty-five isolates of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing mango anthracnose were collected from different agroclimatic zones of India. The isolates were evaluated for their pathogenic variability on mango seedlings and genetic characterization using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD molecular techniques). The random primers OPA-1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 15, 16 and 18 were used and the...

Author(s): Gupta V. K., Pandey A., Kumar P. , Pandey B. K., Gaur R. K., Bajpai V., Sharma N. and Sharma S.

June 2010

In vitro response of promising tomato genotypes for tolerance to osmotic stress

  Drought is a major abiotic factor that limits plant growth and productivity. Tomato is an important vegetable crop and area under production is limited by irrigation water scarcity. Four cultivars of tomato were grown as callus cultures under conditions of water stress, which was induced by addition of polyethylene glycol (6000) in the medium. The presence of PEG in the medium decreased relative growth rate...

Author(s): M. A. Aazami, M. Torabi and E. Jalili

June 2010

Yield performance of crops and soil chemical changes under fertilizer treatments in a mixed cropping system

  Yields of maize, melon, cassava and cowpea as well as changes in soil chemical contents were examined under different fertilizer treatments in a mixed cropping system. The results showed that fertilizer treatments had significant effects on the yields of maize, cassava and cowpea but no significant effect on melon yield. Total nitrogen decreased in all the plots after cropping and available phosphorus reduced...

Author(s):   O. T. Ayoola

June 2010

Regenerating plants from in vitro culture of Erigeron breviscapus leaves

  A protocol to efficiently achieve plant regeneration from leaf explants of Erigeron breviscapus (Compositae) has been developed. Leaf explants produced calli on Murashige and Skoog’s (1962) basal medium (MS) supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) (0.4 M) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (0.4-22.6 M) under a 16-h photoperiod. Direct adventitious shoots were induced from leaf...

Author(s): Zhao Yun Xing, Hui Yan Yuan, Li Feng Wang and Li Ping Zheng

June 2010

Effect of some metal-containing compounds and fertilizers on mycoparasite Trichoderma species mycelia growth response

 Response of three biocontrol agents including Trichoderma harzianum T969,Trichoderma hamatum T614 and Trichoderma virens T525 in the presence of 0, 50, 91.2, 166, 302, 550 and 1000 mg/l concentrations of MgSO4.7H2O, ZnSO4.7H2O, CuSO4, FeSO4.7H2O, MnSO4.H2O, CoCl2.6H2O, CaCl2.2H2O and (NH4)2SO4 via poisoned medium method, were studied. Radial growth of theTrichoderma isolates...

Author(s): Behzad Hajieghrari

June 2010

Effects of aluminum on root growth and absorption of nutrients by two pineapple cultivars [Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.]

  Aluminum (Al) is a biotoxic which often influences the absorption of nutrients by plants in strongly acidic soils. In this experiment, the effect of Al on root growth, absorption of macronutrients; phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and micronutrients; iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) by two pineapple cultivars (ig. Al-resistant Cayenne and Al-sensitive Tainung...

Author(s): Yong-Hong Lin

June 2010

Impact of genotype, age of tree and environmental temperature on androgenesis induction of Aesculus hippocastanum L.

  Influence of ten different genotypes, age of trees and environmental temperature on induction of androgenesis and apperance albino horse chestnut embryos were studied. Efficiency of in vitro androgenesis via anther and microspore culture had been investigated. Microspores and anthers were used from the same closed flower bud. Androgenic response of different genotypes was measured and...

Author(s): Dušica Ćalić-Dragosavac, Svetlana Stevović

June 2010

Influence of genotype and plant growth regulator on somatic embryogenesis in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

  Two genotypes of Brassica napus species (Talayeh and RGS003) and the explants segment (hypocotyls and cotyledon) were tested for their potential to produce somatic embryos in in vitro condition. The effect of genotype, different explants and also different concentrations of plant growth regulators (PGRs) including: α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy...

Author(s): Mohammad Zeynali, Bahram Maleki zanjani, Mohammad E. Amiri, Meysam Noruzian and Shahla M. Aghajari

June 2010

Heavy metal resistance by two bacteria strains isolated from a copper mine tailing in China

  Two highly heavy metal resistant indigenous bacterial strains, DX-T3-01 and DX-T3-03, were isolated from the biggest tailing in Asia-Dexing copper mine 4# tailing. The strain DX-T3-01 exhibited high tolerance to cadmium: 10 mM Cd2+ with yeast tryptophan peptone glucose (YTPG) agar plates and 18 mM in liquid medium. The strain DX-T3-03 was highly resistant to zinc and could endure 35 mM Zn2+ with...

Author(s): Xuehui Xie, Jin Fu, Huiping Wang and Jianshe Liu

June 2010

Biodegradation of glyphosate herbicide in vitro using bacterial isolates from four rice fields

  Glyphosate is a compound used as herbicide in the control and/or killing of grasses and herbaceous plants. It can be used in no-till agriculture, to prepare fields before planting, during crop development and after crop harvest. Because of its toxicity to non-target organisms, there is need to decontaminate glyphosate contaminated soils and bioremediation is a very useful alternative to conventional cleanup...

Author(s): A. N. Moneke, G. N. Okpala and C. U. Anyanwu

June 2010

Microbial biodegradable potato starch based low density polyethylene

 Plastic materials remain in the nature for decades. Slow degradation of plastics in the environment caused a public trend to biodegradable polymers. The aim of this research was to produce the microbial biodegradable low density polyethylene with potato starch. Degradation of potato starch based low density polyethylene (LDPE) was investigated in soil rich in microorganisms for 8 months. Weight differences of...

Author(s): Mehdi Borghei, Abdolreza Karbassi, Shahrzad khoramnejadian, Abdolrasoul Oromiehie and Amir hossein Javid

June 2010

Morphological and molecular detection of Fusarium chlamydosporum from root endophytes of Dendrobium crumenatum

  Fusarium has a cosmopolitan distribution, with some species able to cause diseases in agricultural crops. A number of isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy roots of Dendrobium crumenatum (Orchidaceae) at Universiti Putra Malaysia campus. The isolates were primarily identified as Fusarium chlamydosporum based on morphological characteristics. The...

Author(s): Shafiquzzaman Siddiquee, Umi Kalsom Yusuf, and Nur Ain Izzati Mohd Zainudin

June 2010

Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

  Suya chicken (A) and beef (B) samples classified according to state: TA1 B1 - raw; TA2 B2 - spiced; TA3 B3 - spiced and roasted; TA4 B4 - left over, unheated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, TA5 B5 - leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific...

Author(s): A. D. Ologhobo, A. B. Omojola, S. T. Ofongo, S. Moiforay and M. Jibir

June 2010

Chemical properties of 11 date cultivars and their corresponding fiber extracts

 Date palm fruit from 11 Tunisian cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were analyzed for their main chemical composition. Results showed that date fruits were rich in sugar (79.93 - 88.02 g/100 g dry matter), fiber (8.09 - 20.25 g/100 g dry matter) and ash (1.73 - 2.59 g/100 g dry matter). Mineral fraction was dominated by potassium and sugar fraction was dominated by reducing sugar (glucose, fructose) except...

Author(s): Chema Borchani, Souhail Besbes, Christophe Blecker, Manel Masmoudi, Rochdi Baati and Hamadi Attia

June 2010

Chemical composition of Annona senegalensis from Nupe land, Nigeria

  The proximate, mineral composition, amino acids content and phytochemical screening of Anona senegalensis seed vegetable collected from different farm site in Bida town, Niger State, Nigeria, were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The results of the proximate composition show that the sample contained 12.20% moisture, 12.10% ash, 24.00% fat, 17.60% crude fibre, 8.80% crude...

Author(s):   J. Yisa J. N. Egila and A. O. Darlinton

June 2010

Butyrylcholinesterase activity in Nigerian type 2 diabetics with and without metabolic syndrome

  Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic progressive disease typified by a loss of glycaemic control over time as the insulin secreting pancreatic β-cells lose their ability to compensate for the prevailing levels of insulin sensitivity. Several abnormalities are associated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Butyrylcholinesterase activity in diabetes and metabolic syndrome is generally under...

Author(s): R. A. Umar, S.W. Hassan and O. F. Ndukwe

June 2010

Biochemical composition of three Tunisian silverside (fish) populations caught in open sea, lagoon and island coasts

  Fatty acid and amino acid profiles were determined in three silverside populations caught in Tunisian waters Atherina boyeri (open sea), Atherina lagunae (lagoon) and Atherina sp. (island coasts). Saturated fatty acids reached in total lipids 43.54%, 36.96% in marine and 33.64% in insular silverside and A. lagunae, in which eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic...

Author(s): Nawzet Bouriga, , Salah Selmi, Eric Faure and Monia Trabelsi

June 2010

Isoflavone content and antioxidant activity of Thai fermented soybean and its capsule formulation

  Soybeans (Glycine max) are usually eaten as processed foods. Fermented soybeans are among the most popular of these processed foods. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fermentation duration on isoflavone content and antioxidant activity of fermented soybeans. Capsule formulation of fermented soybeans was also studied. The Thai soybean variety, Rajamangala60, was fermented...

Author(s): Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Thapana Kumar, Pramote Tipduangta and Wandee Rungseevijitprapa

June 2010

Efficacy of esterified glucomannan, sodium bentonite and humic acid to counteract experimental aflatoxicosis on antibody titers against Newcastle disease in broilers

  A study was conducted on the impact of aflatoxin (AF) and sodium bentonite, esterified glucomannan and humic acid, on immunization against Newcastle disease (ND) in broiler feed with naturally contaminated diet with aflatoxin. Seven-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to nine dietary treatments in four replicates of 12 chicks. Treatments were 1) Control; 2) naturally contaminated diet with aflatoxin;...

Author(s):   A study was conducted on the impact of aflatoxin (AF) and sodium bentonite, esterified glucomannan and humic acid, on immunization against Newcastle disease (ND) in broiler feed with naturally contaminated diet with aflatoxin. Seven-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to nine dietary treatments in four replicates of chicks. Treatments were ) Control; ) naturally contaminated diet with aflatoxin; , , , and ) naturally contaminated diet with aflatoxin supplemented with ., ., ., . and .% humic acid, respectively; and ) naturally contaminated diet supplemented with .% sodium bentonite and .% esterified glucomannan, respectively. The measured aflatoxin in contaminated diet, confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), was  ppb. Blood sample was taken from each bird and the titers of antibody against ND were measured by haemagglutination-inhibition test. Compared to the control diet, the antibody titers against ND was significantly (P < .) lower in ppb aflatoxin fed chicks from to days of age. The addition of esterified glucomannan, sodium bentonite and humic acid to the AF-containing diet ameliorated the adverse effects of aflatoxin on ND antibody titers, but humic acid proved to be more effective in the amelioration of the adverse effect of AF on humeral immunity against ND.   Key words: Esterified glucomannan, sodium bentonite, humic acid, aflatoxicosis, Newcastle disease.

June 2010

Effect of Trichoderma spp. inoculation on the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of wheat straw

  To evaluate the cultural ability of some Trichoderma isolates on wheat straw and the influence of their exogenous enzyme activities on chemical compositions as well as in vitro digestibility and upgrading of the nutritive value of lignocellulolytic materials, sterilized and non sterilized wheat straw were inoculated withTrichoderma isolates (including Trichoderma...

Author(s): Taher Yalchi and Behzad Hajieghrari

June 2010

Detection of phylogenetic extraction of sheep populations in East and South Asia based on fuzzy discriminants analysis

  Based on the previous research, according to the Hierarchy clustering, the sheep populations in East and South Asia were divided into 3 groups: Mongolia group, South-Asia group and European group. In this study, the extraction of sheep was demonstrated by two discriminants based on fuzzy discriminants analysis. The discriminants were verified with sheep populations presented 34 alleles in 10 loci. The result...

Author(s): Wei Sun, Hong Chang, Hassan Hussein Musa, Zhangping Yang, Kenji Tsunoda and Mingxing Chu