African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 2 October 2006; 5(19)

October 2006

Emerging roles in plant biotechnology for the second messenger cGMP - guanosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate

Second messengers are small transient molecules that transmit and/or modulate environmental or hormonal signals linking them to complex and often systemic physiological responses. Recent reports have renewed interest in the second messenger guanosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) since it has been shown to directly mediate an ever increasing number of plant responses ranging from the modification of...

Author(s): Stuart Meier and Chris Gehring

October 2006

Ethnopharmacology of human immunodeficiency virus in South Africa–a minireview

Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiologic agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), continues to pose an unprecedented public health problem of enormous proportions worldwide. Current treatment options for HIV/AIDS have not been satisfactory and the quest for effective curative or preventive therapies goes on. Plants are increasingly seen as an alternative source for the discovery...

Author(s): Pascal Obong Bessong, Chikwelu Larry Obi

October 2006

Production of the first transgenic cassava in Africa via direct shoot organogenesis from friable embryogenic calli and germination of maturing somatic embryos

The impact of cassava transformation technologies for agricultural development in Africa will depend largely on how successfully these capabilities are transferred and adapted to the African environment and local needs. Here we report on the first successful establishment of cassava regeneration and transformation capacity in Africa via organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis and friable embryogenic callus (FEC). As a...

Author(s): B.B. Hankoua,, N.J. Taylor , S.Y.C. Ng, I. Fawole, J. Puonti-Kaerlas, C. Padmanabhan, J.S. Yadav, C.M. Fauquet, A.G.O. Dixon, V.N. Fondong

October 2006

Early age onset familial Mediterranean fever associated with compound heterozygote M680I /M694V mutation

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by acute episodes of fever accompanied by severe abdominal pain, pleurisy, arthritis, and skin rash. The clinical variability of the disease has been mainly attributed to MEFV gene allelic heterogeneity and partly to the influence of additional genetic and/or environmental factors. We present a 6-month-old boy who suffered from...

Author(s): Safar Farajnia, Ailar Nakhlband, Mandana Rafeey and Kazem Sakha

October 2006

Diagnosis and surveillance of rinderpest using reverse transcription - PCR

PCR technique was used as an alternative method to detect evidence of rinderpest virus for diagnosis and in epidemiological surveys. Viral RNA was purified in 20 to 30 min using a commercial kit (RNaid (BIO 101). Primers used mapped in the nucleocapsid protein gene of rinderpest virus and gave specific and sensitive amplification from pathological samples. The size of the amplified fragment was 297 bp and the result was...

Author(s): E. Couacy-Hymann, S.C. Bodjo, T. Danho, M.Y. Koffi, C. Akoua-Koffi

October 2006

Use of virus suspensions without RNA extraction as RT-PCR templates for detection of Newcastle disease virus

Allantoic fluid (AF) and cell culture supernatant (CCS) obtained from eggs or cells infected with strain I-2 of Newcastle disease virus were processed by different RNA template preparation methods for direct use in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The objective was to determine the most effective technique for viral RNA extraction with consideration for efficacy, economy...

Author(s): P. N. Wambura

October 2006

Characterisation of palm wine yeast isolates for industrial utilisation

Investigations were carried out on yeasts isolated from palm wines obtained from South Eastern Nigeria. The isolates were characterised for certain attributes necessary for ethanol production. Isolations were made from 600 hour-aged wines. The attributes investigated included ethanol tolerance and sedimentation rates. The effect of certain locally available supplements on ethanol tolerance was also investigated. Nine...

Author(s): Nwachukwu,  I.N; Ibekwe, V.I, Nwabueze, R.N and Anyanwu, B.N

October 2006

Detection of fungi and aflatoxin in shelved bush mango seeds (Irvingia spp.) stored for sale in Uyo, Nigeria

A survey of the fungi and aflatoxin contamination of bush mango seeds (Irvingiaspp.) was conducted in Akwa lbom State, Nigeria. Bush mango seeds sold at four major markets, located at Abak, Uyo,  Ikot Ekpene and Itam  in Akwa Ibom State were heavily contaminated with moulds. Eight different fungi were found associated with the bush mango seeds; Aspergillus carbonarius, Aspergillus tereus,...

Author(s): B.C. Adebayo-Tayo, A.A. Onilude, A.A Ogunjobi, J.S. Gbolagade and M.O. Oladapo

October 2006

Biotransformation of the fish waste by fermentation

Fish waste (viscera, backbones, heads and tails) was recovered fish merchants and ground. 50 kg of the ground fish was mixed with 10 kg of molasses and incubated in 200 kg barrels in closed plastic in a room where the ambient temperature varies between 30 and 33°C. Stumps of lactic bacteria and yeasts were used to inoculate the mixture. There was a decrease of pH from the third day which stabilized at 4.2 and a...

Author(s): Ennouali M, Elmoualdi L, labioui H, Ouhsine M, and Elyachioui M.

October 2006

Investigations of different strategies for high frequency regeneration of Dendrobium malones ‘Victory’

Regeneration of orchid, Dendrobium malones “Victory”, has been established by direct differentiation and through callus formation. With direct thin leaf section differentiation method, the number of protocorm like bodies (PLBs) formed from Thin Section (TS) explants obtained from a single leaf was 10 times more than that from a single whole leaf, in a short time period. This therefore...

Author(s): Saima Anjum, Muhammad Zia and M. Fayyaz Chaudhary

October 2006

Performance of quality protein maize varieties and disease reaction in the derived-savanna agro-ecology of South-West Nigeria

Eight quality protein maize (QPM) varieties were evaluated for their agronomic performance and disease reaction in the derived savanna agro-ecology of south-west Nigeria for two years. The eight varieties comprised of three hybrid varieties (Mama-ba, Dada-ba and CIDA-ba) and five open pollinated (OP) varieties (Obatampa, EV8363, EV8766, Pool-18-SR and Pool-15-SR). Differences among the varieties were significant for...

Author(s): Akande, S. R. and Lamidi G. O.

October 2006

Cowpea viruses: Quantitative and qualitative effects of single and mixed viral infections

Multiple viral infections have been reported on cultivated commercial cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in Nigeria.  In this study, the effect of inoculating two commercial cultivars (cvs) (“Oloyin” and “Olo II’) and two lines from IITA (Ife Brown and TVu-76) with buffer, Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic  (CABMV),Cowpea mottle (CMeV) and Southern bean mosaic (SBMV) viruses...

Author(s): M. A. Taiwo and O. J. Akinjogunla

October 2006

Eco-taxonomic distribution of plant species around motor mechanic workshops in Asaba and Benin City, Nigeria: Identification of oil tolerant plant species

A survey of plant species and their families present in auto mechanic workshops in Benin City and Asaba was carried out. The frequency of occurrence of plants in the sites visited was used to determine prevalence. Peperomia pellucida occurred most in all the sites visited with a 55% frequency. The high rate of occurrence of a particular plant species in the frequency table, suggests that such plants are...

Author(s): Anoliefo, G. O., Ikhajiagbe, B. , Okonofhua, B. O. and Diafe, F. V. 

October 2006

Conversion of masonia tree sawdust and cotton plant by product into feed by white rot fungus (Pleurotus sajor caju)

The influence of fungus treatment on the biochemical composition and degradation patter of sawdust and cotton plant by-products (cotton burns and cotton gin trash) by Pleurotus sajor caju were evaluated.  Lignin degradation increased as the incubation period progressed while the highest loss of hemicellulose, cellulose, acid detergent fibre, neutral detergent fibre were recorded for treated cotton plant...

Author(s): Belewu M.A.

October 2006

Histopathological changes observed in the heart and gizzard of quail chicks Coturnix coturnix japonica administrated by the different levels of chrome shaving

The present study showed the effects of different levels of tannery wastes or chrome shaving on quail chicks up to 9 months. The chrome shaving was given at 2.5 and 5% levels in replacement of animal proteins in chicks feed commercially available. Heart and gizzard were selected for the histopathological studies and effects of different levels were studied in these tissues. Histopathological changes like splitting of...

Author(s): Samreen Riaz, Saadia Shahzad Alam and Asma Ikram

October 2006

Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus 1593

Bacillus sphaericus 1593 was found to grow poorly on glucose when provided as sole carbon source. However, growth was significantly much higher when acetate was provided as the carbon source, as compared to glucose. The activities of aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase were detectable which suggests the operation of TCA cycle, hexose monophosphate pathway and...

Author(s): S. S. Ingle, V.  Panchal and H.S. Chhatpar

October 2006

Preparation and in vitro evaluation of suppositories of halofantrine hydrochloride

Halofantrine (HF) hydrochloride is commercially available only as oral dosage forms. Limitations of oral dosing of the drug coupled with non-availability of the safe parenteral preparations prompted the need to develop and evaluate suppository HF formulations, which may serve as a practical alternative. The effects of type of suppository base and incorporation of non ionic surfactants on in vitrorelease...

Author(s): F. A. Oladimeji, S. I. Omoruyi and  C. O. Onyeji

October 2006

In vitro study of the interaction between some fluoroquinolones and extracts of kola nitida seed

The cup diffusion method (CD) was used to evaluate the in vitro interaction of some fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, pefloxacin and levofloxacin) with extracts ofKola nitida seed (KNS) against a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drugs was determined separately and in combination with KNS extract in ratios of 0:5, 1:4, 2:3, 3:2, 4:1 and 5:0...

Author(s): IBEZIM, E. C., ESIMONE, C. O., NNAMANI, P. O., ONYISHI, I. V., BROWN, S. A. and OBODO, C. E.

October 2006

Virucidal potential of some edible Nigerian vegetables

Extracts from four leaves: Ceratotheca sesamoides (Endl.), Lactuca taraxacifolia (Willd.), Euphorbia lateriflora (Schum. & Throes) andAmaranthus viridis (Linn.) used in Nigeria as edible vegetables were tested for antiviral activities using the measles virus on Human Epidermoid carcinoma (HEP-2) cell line. The efficacy of each extract in preventing viral penetration into a living cell...

Author(s): Obi, R. K., Iroagba, I. I. and Ojiako O. A.

October 2006

Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies on the leaves and stem of Desmodium scorpiurus Der (sw)

Phytochemical studies on the aerial parts of Desmodium scorpiurus Der (sw) revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, steroids and carbohydrates. The petroleum spirit, chloroform and methanol extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity using clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pyrogenes and Klebsiella...

Author(s): Ndukwe I. G., Habila J. D. Bello I. A and Okoh J. I.

October 2006

Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial screening of crude extracts from the leaves, stem bark and root bark of Ekebergia senegalensis A. Juss

The leaves, stem bark and root bark of Ekebergia senegalensis, which has some traditional medicinal applications were investigated. Phytochemical analysis gave positive results for carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins and alkaloids. The crude methanol extracts showed growth inhibitory effects on Salmonella typhi,Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli andStaphylococcus...

Author(s): Ndukwe, I. G., Habila, J. D., Bello, I. A. and Adeleye, E.O.

October 2006

Antibacterial activities of Allium vineale, Chaerophyllum macropodum and Prangos ferulacea

Allium vineale L., Chaerophyllum macropodum Boiss. and Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl. have been used for cheese production in Turkiye for many centuries. In addition, it is traditionally believed by local people that these plants have antibacterial activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of these plants. Four solvent extracts (in methanol, ethanol, n-hexane...

Author(s): Hisamettin Durmaz, Emrullah Sagun, Zekai Tarakci and Fevzi Ozgokce

October 2006

Nutrient composition and storage studies on roselle extract enriched deep-fat-fried snack food

Roselle extract fortified deep-fat-fried snack food (ReSF) developed was evaluated for nutritional and organoleptic enrichment. Effect of the extract and package films on oxidative changes in ReSF as affected by display conditions were also examined. ReSF is rich in dietary Fe (1965 µg/g sample) with variable organoleptic profile. The Roselle extract exerted inhibitory activities on peroxidation. Display of ReSF...

Author(s): Daramola, B. and Asunni, O. A.

October 2006

Dietary potentials of the edible larvae of Cirina forda (westwood) as a poultry feed

An experiment was conducted to determine the performance of broiler chicks to the replacement of fishmeal with the larvae of Cirina forda. Three diets, namely Diet A (100% C. forda larvae and 0% Fish meal); Diet B (50% C. forda larvae and 50% Fish meal); and Diet C, which was the control (100% Fish meal and 0%C. forda larvae) were compounded and fed to the birds. The results showed that the...

Author(s): Oyegoke, O.O., Akintola, A. J. and Fasoranti, J. O.

October 2006

Studies on the storage stability of soursop (Annona muricata L.) juice

This work was aimed at producing juice from soursop (Annona muricata L.) and understudying its storage stability at refrigeration (4°C) and ambient (28°C) temperatures. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory qualities of the juice were analysed before they were stored for 8 weeks. Changes in physicochemical quality and microbiological quality were analysed regularly during the period of storage. Results...

Author(s): Emmanuel S. Abbo, Taiwo O. Olurin and Grace Odeyemi

October 2006

Cytospecies identifications of vectors of human onchocerciasis in south eastern Nigeria

Cytogenetic studies were carried out on the larvae of the members of the Simulium damnosum complex from 10 sites across the different bioecological zones in Southeast Nigeria. A total of 334 identifications belonging to 3 cytospecies (S.squamosum, S. yahense and S. damnosum) were made. The ICb variant of S.squamosum was observed for the first time in Nigeria. The...

Author(s): O. O. IBEH, B. E. B. NWOKE, J. A. ADEGOKE and H. B. MAFUYAI

October 2006

Continuous removal and recovery of lead by alginate beads, free and alginate-immobilized Chlorella vulgaris

This study examines the possibility of using Chlorella vulgaris cells in repeated lead adsorption/desorption cycles. Alginate beads and immobilized with algal cells were more effective and suitable than free cells. Consistently high lead removal (>90%) and recovery (about 100%) were achieved. Lead adsorption was mainly via the alginate matrix and minor contribution was made by algae. Free cells were...

Author(s): M. S. Abdel Hameed

October 2006

Effect of gas flaring on soil microbial spectrum in parts of Niger Delta area of southern Nigeria

Effects of gas-flaring on soil bacterial spectrum in parts of Niger-Delta area of Southern Nigeria was investigated using culture techniques and some ecological factors. While temperature decreased away from the flare points (60oC to 28oC), pH values, changed from acidic (4.0 – 4.2) to near neutral (6.4 – 6.6) away from the flare point. Moisture content also increased away from the flare. Bacterial load of...


October 2006

Supported liquid membrane extraction of 17b- estradiol and its metabolites in a variety of biological matrices

A sample purification and enrichment technique involving the use of supported liquid membrane (SLM) has been developed for the selective extraction of 17b- estradiol and its metabolites, namely 17b-estriol and estrone in various biological matrices and water. The biological matrices in which extraction was done included bovine kidney and liver tissues, milk and urine.  The liquid membrane used to trap these...

Author(s): Titus A.M. Msagati and Mathew M. Nindi

October 2006

Spawning induction in the Mediterranean grey mullet Mugil cephalus and larval developmental stages

Spawning induction in the present study was carried out in two steps. The first treatment consisted of a priming dose of carp pituitary extract with 20 to 70 mg, or 10000 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) per fish, while the second dose given 24 h later was the resolving dose of 200 µg/Kg luetenizing and releasing hormone (LHRH-a). After the resolving dose the females were maintained together with males and...

Author(s): Meseda, M. El-Gharabawy and Samira, S. Assem

October 2006

Bioactive fractions of n-hexane extracts from Vigna pods against the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius

The identification of resistance factors in Vigna species has been a major constraint to the development of effective host-plant resistance against the major insect pests of cowpea. We studied the effects of some fractions of the n-hexane extract of green pods of three Vigna species namely V. vexillata, V. oblongifolia and V. unguiculata on the growth, development and...

Author(s): Oigiangbe, O.N., L.E.N. Jackai, F.K. Ewete and L. Lajide.