African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12182

Table of Content: 4 October 2010; 9(40)

October 2010

Physiological responses of food animals to road transportation stress

The increasing demand in proteins to feed the ever-growing world population has necessitated the industrialization and transportation of livestock using different means of transportation across several ecological zones with different climatic conditions. The stress factors acting on animals during road transportation are numerous and the responses of the animal to them are complex, non-specific and often detrimental to...

Author(s): N. S. Minka and J. O. Ayo

October 2010

Relationship between five climatic parameters and somatic embryogenesis from sporophytic floral explants of Theobroma cacao L.

To analyse the relationship between climatic parameters and somatic embryogenesis (SE), some favourable and unfavourable periods were identified. Likewise, to optimize SE in unfavourable periods the relationship among 2,4-D/TDZ, SE and year was analysed. Staminodes and petals of six hybrids and two clones as controls were sown in bulk onto three different calli induction media. Minimal temperature, rainfall, maximal...

Author(s): Auguste Emmanuel Issali, Abdoulaye Traoré, Jean Louis Konan, Joseph Mpika, Emile Minyaka, Jeanne Andi Kohi Ngoran and Abdourahamane Sangaré

October 2010

Insect-resistance and high-yield transgenic tobacco obtained by molecular breeding technology

The modified synthesized VHb gene and insectidal gene (GFMcryIA) were transferred to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The bivalent genes were inserted successfully into the tobacco genome and detected by PCR amplification. Southern blot and Western blot analyses showed that VHb gene was expressed in the transgenic plants. Toxicity assay indicated that...

Author(s): Wang Youru, and Guo Sandui

October 2010

Detection of somaclonal variation by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis during micropropagation of Phalaenopsis bellina (Rchb.f.) Christenson

Phalaenopsis bellina (Rchb.f.) Christenson orchid species are known for their beautiful flower shape, graceful inflorescence and fragrance. Protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of P. bellina were induced from leaf segments. The PLBs were then subjected to proliferation using ½ strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) media with two subcultures at three months intervals. Twelve decamer random amplified...

Author(s): Khoddamzadeh A. A, Sinniah U. R, Kadir M. A, Kadzimin S. B, Mahmood M and Sreeramanan S

October 2010

Characterization of wide cross derivatives in rice Oryza sativa L. using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH)

Interspecific crosses provide a bridge by which the gene pool of rice can be increased. Introduction of alien genes requires hybridization followed by meiotic pairing and recombination between the chromosomes of cultivated and wild species. Attempts have been made to visualize the genomic constitution of wide-cross derivatives. Genomic in situ hybridization was used to detect Oryza...

Author(s): Fida M. Abbasi, M. Afzal, F. Perveen, R. Masood, Safdar H Shah, Azhar H. Shah, R. Mujaddad , A. Majid, M. Sajid and Alia Gul

October 2010

Prolamin extraction from high polyphenol seeds of sorghum (Sorghum spp.) and species discrimination and varieties identification by ultrathin-layer isoelectric focusing

The seeds of sorghum (Sorghum spp.) are rich in polyphenols, which cause protein precipitation and coloration of extracts. Because of this precipitation, proteins in seeds of sorghum cannot be effectively extracted using common methods. Here we report two modified methods for the seed protein extraction. The result showed that the method in which the samples were pretreated by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPP)...

Author(s): Liu Min-Xuan, Wang Yun-Wen, Han Jian-Guo, Mao Pei-Sheng

October 2010

The effect of different harvesting times on seed-set efficiency in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties

This study was undertaken in the South Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey during the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons to investigate the seed set efficiencies (SSE) of ten cotton cultivars grown in semi-arid climatic conditions. SSE changed by year by approximately 1-2%, averaging 87-88% in both of the study years, respectively.  Mean values for varieties ranged from 86.5% (SG-125) to 89.9% (DPL-5111) in 2006 and from...

Author(s): Osman Çopur, Ibrahim Halil Birgul, Hasan Haliloglu and Vedat Beyyavas

October 2010

Effects of soil solarization and some amendments to control verticillium wilt in established olive orchards

The effects of solarization treatments, alone or with organic amendments and urea against verticillium wilt on olives were studied. Trials were carried out during the 2005 - 2007 seasons in an olive orchard consisting of 700 4 - 6 year old trees (cv Gemlik) in Germencik region of Aydin. Five treatments were carried out: Solarization (S), solarization + chicken manure (SCM) (1 kg m-2), solarization + olive...

Author(s): Ayhan Yildiz and Seher Benlioglu

October 2010

Effect of sowing techniques and harvesting treatments on the performances of some rotation pasture mixtures

The objective of this study was to test the performances of some promising forage crop mixtures for rotation pastures under Mediterranean ecological conditions. The study was conducted in the experimental area of Field Crops Department of Agriculture Faculty, Aegean University, Turkey in 2004 and 2005. Festuca arundinaceae Schreb., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Medicago...

Author(s): Behçet Kir, Gülcan Demiroğlu, Rıza Avcioğlu and Hakan Geren

October 2010

Yak and Tibet sheep grazing ingestion restrain seed germination of two Saussurea species in Tibetan meadow

Grazing disturbance had been defined as an important mechanism that allows the maintenance of species diversities in plant communities. To help understand effect of grazing on seed germination characteristics, we conducted a laboratory germination experiment with two Saussurea species, which were dominant species in alpine meadow communities of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and yak and Tibet sheep rumen juices....

Author(s): Li Xiao-Peng, Li Xin-Gang, Wu Gao-Lin, Wei Xue-Hong and Sun Lei

October 2010

Identification of differentially expressed genes from male and female flowers of kiwifruit

Kiwifruit is one of the dioecious plant species, whereas most flowering plants are hermaphrodite. Sex chromosome-linked genes have been isolated mainly from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia. As an attempt to understand the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in kiwifruit, we performed DEG (differentially expressed gene) screening using annealing control primer-based gene fishing method...

Author(s): Ho Bang Kim, Sung-Soo Jun, Sunghwa Choe, Jae Youl Cho, Sang-Bong Choi and Seong-Cheol Kim

October 2010

Effect of different extracts of callus and plantlets of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) on seed germination of some agricultural crops

Biological activity of various extracts from calli grown in presence of different growth hormones and plantlets obtained from micropropagation was observed in laboratory experiment by using Triticum aestivum, Sorghum vulgare, Arachis hypogea, Glycine max, Cajanus cajan, and Cicer arietinum as bioassay materials. The experiment was conducted in sterilized petri dishes for five days at an...

Author(s): A. S. Taware, S. N. Harke, D. S. Mukadam, A. M. Chavan and S. D. Taware

October 2010

Effect of atrazine applications on weed growth and yield at different irrigation levels in corn (Zea mays L.) growth

Corn (Zea mays L.), for silage, is very important in animal feeding because winter seasonal conditions last longer in Eastern Turkey. Corn yield components were investigated in plots, in which herbicide had been applied and also not applied at different irrigation levels in this study. The study lasted for two years and soil-water content was kept at five different levels [96% (I-1), 63% (I-2), 32% (I-3), 15% (I-4)...

Author(s): llhan Kaya, Seyda Zorer Celebi, Reyyan Yergin and Ibrahim Hakki Yilmaz

October 2010

Screening of Gladiolus germplasm for agronomic performance and resistance against corm rot disease

A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the agronomic performance and resistance of Gladiolus germplasm against corm rot disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f. sp. gladioli (L. Masey) W.C. Snyder & H.N. Hans. Among the 23 Gladiolus varieties tested, Glad Red exhibited the highest spike length of 55 cm followed by Advanced Red (50.2 cm) and White Prosperity...

Author(s): Tariq Riaz, Salik Nawaz Khan and Arshad Javaid

October 2010

Relationship between plant diversity and spatial stability of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) across different grassland ecosystems

Theory predicts that greater biodiversity is expected to enhance stability of ecosystem. In field experiment, we created some diversity-level assemblages by removing functional groups across two grassland ecosystems and evaluated the responses of spatial stability of aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) to varying functional trait diversity. The results revealed that higher diversity promoted greater spatial...

Author(s): Zhao Na, Wang Zhengwen, Lv Jinying and Wang Kun

October 2010

Biodegradation of phenol by free and encapsulated cells of a new Aspergillus sp. isolated from a contaminated site in southern Brazi

The aim of this study was to compare the biodegradation performance of phenol by using free and encapsulated cells of a new Aspergillus sp. strain isolated from a crude oil contaminated soil in southern Brazil. In batch cultures, maximum degradation rates were not significantly different between free and encapsulated cells, but a decrease in adaptation time for encapsulated ones was observed. This fact...

Author(s): Cátia Tavares dos Passos, Mariano Michelon, Janaína Fernandes de Medeiros Burkert, Susana Juliano Kalil and Carlos André Veiga Burkert

October 2010

Isolation and identification of phenol degrading bacteria from Lake Parishan and their growth kinetic assay

Phenol and its components are extremely toxic and can easily be isolated from different industrial sewage such as oil refinery, petrochemical industry and mines, especially collier and chemical factories. Hence the presence of these compounds in the environment could cause environmental pollution, especially in water resources. In the past, physicochemical method was used for the elimination of phenol and its compounds,...

Author(s): Farshid Kafilzadeh, Mohammad-Sadegh Farhangdoost and Yaghoob Tahery

October 2010

Isolation of chromium resistant bacteria from a former bauxite mine area and their capacity for Cr (VI) reduction

The Cr (VI) reducing capacity of bacteria has been investigated in many different soils and waters but little or no information is available from soils originating from bauxite mine areas. From soil, mud and rhizospheres of the floating aquatic plantPotamogeton natans L. and the terrestrial plant Carduus acanthoides L., the Cr content was determined and the microbial populations were sampled. The highest...

Author(s): Vera Raicevic, Zorica Golic, Blazo Lalevic, Ljubinko Jovanovic, Dragan Kikovic, Svetlana Antic Mladenovic

October 2010

Distribution of biomass and diversity of Stipa bungeana community to climatic factors in the Loess Plateau of northwestern China

Based on 28 year field data of Stipa bungeana community in arid, semi-arid, semi-humid areas of the Loess Plateau of Northwestern China, we studied species diversity and above ground biomass of S. bungeana community, analyzed the responses of above ground biomass to climate in different areas, and built a model of relationship between biomass and climatic factors. Results showed that there were...

Author(s): Cheng Jie, Hu Tian-Ming, Cheng Ji-Min, and Wu Gao-Lin,

October 2010

A comparative study on physicochemical properties of Chinese-type soy sauces prepared using pure koji and mixed kojis

Proximate indices, water soluble peptides distribution, free amino acids (FAAs) and aroma active compounds in soy sauces prepared using Aspergillus oryzae koji (SSAO) and mixed kojis (SSAON, A. oryzae koji: Aspergillus niger koji = 3:1, w/w) were determined. Results showed that SSAON resulted in 6.14, 5.97, 10.40, 71.59 and 9.62% of increases in contents of formaldehyde nitrogen,...

Author(s): Xianli Gao, Haifeng Zhao, Yunzi Feng and Mouming Zhao

October 2010

Analysis of the major chemical compositions in Fuzhuan brick-tea and its effect on activities of pancreatic enzymes in vitro

Fuzhuan brick-tea, a fungal-fermented tea, is commonly consumed in northwest China; in places such as Sinkiang and Tibet and is thought to be helpful in digestion. To better understand Fuzhuan brick-tea and its function on digestion, the Fuzhuan brick-tea’s chemical compounds were surveyed at pivotal process phases, and its effects on pancreatic enzymes in vitro were studied. Most of the changes in...

Author(s): Wu, Y.Y., Ding, L., Xia, H. L. and Tu, Y. Y., 

October 2010

Geophagic clays: Their mineralogy, chemistry and possible human health effects

Randomly chosen representative geophagic clay samples from Cameroon and Nigeria were mineralogically and chemically analysed. The primary objectives of the study were to qualitatively and quantitatively identify the mineral constituents and to determine selected elemental compositions in the clay samples in order to infer on possible human health effects. Laboratory tests performed on the samples included X-ray powder...

Author(s): E. Georges-Ivo Ekosse and N. Denis Jumbam

October 2010

Genetic control of protein, oil and fatty acids content under partial drought stress and late sowing conditions in sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

The purpose of the present study was to map quantitative trait locus (QTLs) associated with percentage of seed protein, oil and fatty acids content under different conditions in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower. Three independent field experiments were conducted with well-, partial-irrigated and late-sowing conditions in randomized complete block design with three replications. High...

Author(s): P. Haddadi,, B. Yazdi-samadi, N. B. Langlade, M. R. Naghavi, M. Berger, A. Kalantari, A. Calmon, P. Maury, P. Vincourt and A. Sarrafi

October 2010

Expression of retinoic acid receptor β in human colorectal cancer

To investigate the expression of retinoic acid receptor β (RAR-β) in human colorectal cancer, RAR-β was detected by immunohistochemistry in normal, adjacent and tumor colorectal tissues of 60 patients suffering from colorectal cancer. The clinicopathological data of these 60 patients were also collected and analyzed. The expression rate of RAR-β in tumor tissues was significantly lower than those of...

Author(s): Jiafeng Fang, Hongbo Wei, Zongheng Zheng, Jianpei Liu, Baoguang Hu and Jianglong Huang

October 2010

In vitro antitumor activity of Gracilaria corticata (a red alga) against Jurkat and molt-4 human cancer cell lines

Gracilaria corticata is a red alga which can be collected from many sea coasts around the world such as China, India, Persian Gulf, etc. The Persian Gulf is a unique marine habitat infested with diverse seaweeds. The aim of the present study is to explore anticancer potential of the crude extracts from G. corticata which was collected from the Bushehr coast (South west of Iran). Here, different...

Author(s): Keivan Zandi, Saeed Tajbakhsh, Iraj Nabipour, Zahra Rastian, Forough Yousefi, Samin Sharafian and Kohzad Sartavi

October 2010

Investigation of the effects of constant darkness and light on blood serum cholesterol, insulin and glucose levels in healthy male rats

This study was designed to investigate the effects of constant darkness and light on changes of serum cholesterol, insulin and glucose levels in healthy male rats. In this study, healthy male rats (n = 30) were divided into 3 groups of tens and kept at various light/dark conditions: Control 12:12 light/dark (LD); constant darkness (DD), and constant light (LL) groups for 2 weeks. Blood samples were obtained from...

Author(s): Ali Arasteh, Ali Aliyev, Saeed Khamnei, Abbas Delazar, Mehran Mesgariand Yousef Mehmannavaz

October 2010

Determination of the antioxidant properties of ethanol and water extracts from different parts of Teucrium parviflorum Schreber

This study was designed to examine in vitro antioxidant of extracts of Teucrium parviflorum Schreber. The plants were extracted successively in ethanol and water using soxhlet-apparatus. They were screened for possible antioxidant activity using the ABTS• (2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) radical...

Author(s): Semra Türkoğlu, Sait Çelik, İsmail Türkoğlu, Uğur Çakılcıoğlu and Muammer Bahşi

October 2010

Improvement and enhancement of clavulanic acid production in Streptomyces clavuligerus using vegetable oils

Clavulanic acid (CA) is a potent inhibitor of β-lactamases. Oil can be used as a source of carbon and energy in CA production. To develop a policy for enhanced production of CA, the selection of a production medium and an optimum pH, different vegetable oils as carbon source have been used. The effects of different medium containing vegetable oil on cell growth and CA yield production during the fermentation...

Author(s): Mounir M. Salem-Bekhit, Fars K. Alanazi and Ibrahim A. Alsarra

October 2010

Some reproductive aspects of female bullet tuna, Auxis rochei (Risso), from the Turkish Mediterranean coasts

The study aims to investigate some reproductive properties of bullet tuna (Auxis rochei) in Turkish waters. A total of 216 bullet tunas, 110 males (50.93%) and 106 females (49.07%), from the Turkish Mediterranean coasts were sampled monthly between December 2008 and December 2009. The sex ratio was 1:1.04. A total of 106 ovaries were obtained from the females, and these ovaries were histologically examined to determine...

Author(s): Abdullah Ekrem Kahraman, Didem Göktürk, Erol Rüştü Bozkurt, Tülay Akaylı and F. Saadet Karakulak

October 2010

Performance, immunity, serum biochemical and hematological parameters in broiler chicks fed dietary thyme as alternative for an antibiotic growth promoter

A research study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary inclusion of thyme powder as an antibiotic growth promoter substitution on performance, immune responses, hematological and biochemical parameters in broiler chicks. In this study, 192 day old chicks (Ross 308) were allocated to four treatments with four replicates based on a completely randomized design. Dietary treatments included control, antibiotic...

Author(s): Majid Toghyani, Mohsen Tohidi, Abas Ali Gheisari and Sayed Ali Tabeidian