African Journal of
Biochemistry Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biochem. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0778
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJBR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 418

Full Length Research Paper

Prevalence and associated risk factors of Vitamin D deficiency in children under five years of age, at the Diamniadio Children's Hospital in Senegal

Abou Ba
  • Abou Ba
  • Institute of Social Paediatrics, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Najah Fatou Coly
  • Najah Fatou Coly
  • Faculty of Medicine, University of Thies, Senegal.
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Idrissa Basse
  • Idrissa Basse
  • Faculty of Medicine, University of Thies, Senegal.
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El Hadji Ibrahima Kane
  • El Hadji Ibrahima Kane
  • Paediatrics Department, Children's Hospital of Diamniadio, Senegal.
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Penda Awa Ka
  • Penda Awa Ka
  • Paediatrics Department, Children's Hospital of Diamniadio, Senegal.
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Mamadou Soumboundou
  • Mamadou Soumboundou
  • Faculty of Medicine, University of Thies, Senegal.
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Souleymane Thiam
  • Souleymane Thiam
  • Medical Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Abdourahmane Samba
  • Abdourahmane Samba
  • Medical Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Arame Ndiaye
  • Arame Ndiaye
  • Medical Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Idrissa Yaya Soumah
  • Idrissa Yaya Soumah
  • Medical Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Fatou Diedhiou
  • Fatou Diedhiou
  • Medical Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Fatou Cissé
  • Fatou Cissé
  • Medical Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Moustapha Djité
  • Moustapha Djité
  • Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Néné Oumou Kesso Barry
  • Néné Oumou Kesso Barry
  • Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Pape Matar Kandji
  • Pape Matar Kandji
  • Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Papa Madiéye Gueye
  • Papa Madiéye Gueye
  • Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Fatou Diallo Agne
  • Fatou Diallo Agne
  • Medical Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of medicine, Pharmacy and Dentistry? Cheikh Anta Diop University, Senegal.
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Ndéye Ramatoulaye Diagne Gueye
  • Ndéye Ramatoulaye Diagne Gueye
  • Faculty of Medicine, University of Thies, Senegal.
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  •  Received: 20 June 2022
  •  Accepted: 06 October 2022
  •  Published: 31 October 2022

Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is a public health problem which affects all human beings including dark-skinned subjects. In children, it can cause disabilities associated with skeletal abnormalities such as rickets or stunted growth. VDD is also associated with a significant risk of extra-skeletal, infectious, auto-immune, neoplastic, and cardiovascular diseases. The concentration of 25 (OH) D is currently considered as the best VDD indicator. Whereas VDD has been well studied in Western countries and North America, very few studies have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of VDD in children aged between 0 to 59 months. This is a cross-sectional prospective study conducted from August 5, 2019, to November 30, 2020. A total of three hundred children were included in this study, two hundred of whom were malnourished and the rest with a normal P/T ratio. The variables studied were vitamin D, serum calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron. Ferritin, haemoglobin, protein, albumin and prealbumin were also studied. The prevalence of VDD in the general population was 30%. No significant statistical difference in vitamin D concentration values was noticed between malnourished and nourished children with p = 0.388. Children over 24 months of age are 2.34 times more likely to be VDD than others. Given the prevalence of VDD in the study population, it would be necessary to integrate screening and supplementation into current medical practice.

 

Key words: Vitamin D deficiency, malnutrition, children under 5 years of age, risk factors.