African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 942

Full Length Research Paper

Production of maize-soybean complementary foods fortified with crayfish, bonga fish and carrot flours rich in essential nutrients

Okpalanma Emeka Felix
  • Okpalanma Emeka Felix
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Madonna University, Akpugo, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Ukpong Ekpeno Sunday
  • Ukpong Ekpeno Sunday
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Madonna University, Akpugo, Enugu State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Chude Onuora Charles
  • Chude Onuora Charles
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Igbariam, Anambra State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar
Abah Chizoba Rejoice
  • Abah Chizoba Rejoice
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 17 December 2021
  •  Accepted: 21 July 2022
  •  Published: 31 December 2022

Abstract

Blends of maize-soyabean complementary foods were fortified with foods rich in calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A. Crayfish, bonga fish, and carrot that were processed into flours separately and blended in ratios (2:1:1 w/w) to produce food fortificant. Maize flour, soyabean flour and fortificant were mixed in the ratio of 70:30:0, 60:30:10 and 50:30:20 (% w/w dry basis), respectively to obtain three blends of complementary food. Standard chemical methods were used to determine the blends’ proximate composition, mineral, vitamin A and anti-nutrientional factors. The unfortified blend contents of calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin A were at level of 417.37, 9.15, 6.20 mg/100 g and 387.67 μg RE/100 g, respectively but increased in the fortified blends to the range of 560.45 to 620.12 mg/100 g, 12.43 to 14.25 mg/100 g, 8.72 to 10.67 mg/100 g, and 550.13 to 710.25 μg RE/100 g. Fortified blends formula had micronutrients significantly higher (p<0.05) than the proprietary formula, Cerelac. The blends had 4.03 kCal/g average energy content, 12-19% protein-energy ratio and 25-28% energy from lipids. The proposed fortification levels are based on a daily ration size of 65 g for infants aged 9 to 11 and children aged 12 to 23 months. Feeding 65 g of the diets to infants aged 6 to 11 months will meet the 200, 300 kCal/day and 350 μg RE/day Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) for energy and vitamin A and will be adequate for the minerals (calcium and zinc) requirement of children aged 12 to 23 months.

 

Key words: Complementary foods, maize, soybean, crayfish, carrot, bonga fish.