Contraception is the intentional prevention of fertilization from taking place through various means. Histomorphometry is the study of microscopic organization and structure of a tissue especially by computer-assisted analysis of images formed by a microscope. The aim of the study was to check the effects of oral contraceptives on histomorphometrical parameters in adult female Wistar rats. Twenty-four (24) adult female Wistar rats of 3months old weighing 150 g - 200 g were used for the study. They were divided into four (4) groups of 6 rats each. Group A received 0.6 mg/kg b.w. of norgestrel, group B received 0.6 mg/kg body weight (b.w) of ethinylestradiol / levonorgestrel, group C received 0.6 mg/kg b.w of ethinylestradiol / levonorgestrel and 0.6 mg/kg b.w of ferrous fumarate orally for 21 days oestrus cycle (Estrus phase) in 5-day cycle (4-day treatment with 1-day break) while group D served as the control group received 0.3 ml of distilled water for 21days. Histomorphometrical analysis of the ovary was carried out. The findings revealed that non-combination contraceptives (non COC) left the ovary intact, while combined (COC) oral contraceptives and the concurrent administration of ferrous fumarate adversely distorted the morphology of the ovary. Luteal cell counts showed significant decrease (P<0.01, P<0.05) in lutea cell count/ovary in groups B and C when compared to control while significant increase in corpora luteal cell count/corpus luteum was observed in group A when compared with control. The study shows that combined oral contraceptives (COC) with ferrous fumarate is more effective than single contraceptives (Non COC) in preventing pregnancy occurrences.
Key words: Oral contraceptives, luteal cell count, ovaries, corpora luteal cell count/corpus luteum.
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