African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5232

Full Length Research Paper

PdMfs1, a major facilitator superfamily transporter from Penicillium digitatum, is partially involved in the imazalil-resistance and pathogenicity

Ji-ye Wang1,2, Xue-peng Sun1,2, Ling-yun Lin1,2, Tian-yuan Zhang1,2, Zhong-hua Ma1,2 and Hong-ye Li1,2*        
1Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029, China. 2Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Crop Pathogens and Insect Pests of Minstry of Agriculture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029, China.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 20 October 2011
  •  Published: 09 January 2012


Penicillium digitatum, causing green mold, is the most important postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits worldwide. Fungicide imazalil has been used in control of this mold for more than three decades. In the presence of imazalil pressure, imazalil resistance strain has risen worldwide. To explore the potential role of multidrug resistance (MDR) in imazalil resistance, a membrane efflux transporter Penicillium digitatum major facilitator surperfamily1 (PdMfs1) was cloned, and its functions in imazalil resistance and pathogenicity were analyzed. PdMfs1 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,876 bp and 3 introns of 55, 49 and 71 bp, respectively. It encodes a protein of 566 amino acids that shares a high degree of similarity with members of the drug: Hantiporter efflux family of the major facilitator surperfamily (MFS) transporters of other fungi. Expression of PdMfs1was up-regulated by treatment with imazalil and other fungicdes in both imazalil-sensitive and –resistant P. digitatum. Disruption of PdMfs1 gene rendered P. digitatum more sensitive to imazalil and other DMI fungicides, and the imazalil-resistance could be rescued by reintroducing the wild-type PdMfs1 gene into the PdMfs1 disruption mutant (ΔPdMfs1).Overexpression of PdMfs1 rendered P. digitatum more resistant to imazalil. These results indicate that PdMfs1 is a multidrug transporter of P. digitatum that could pump imazalil out of cells, thus contributing resistance to imazalil partially. Pathogenicity analysis showed that the disease on the citrus fruits inoculated with the ΔPdMfs1 developed much slower than that induced by the parental strain PdW03, suggesting that PdMfs1 also plays a role on the virulence of P. digitatum.


Key words: Penicillium digitatum, major facilitator surperfamily (MFS) transporters,imazalil resistance, virulence.