Surgical site infections (SSI) caused by rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) have become increasingly frequent. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiological, clinical aspects and factors associated with RGM infections related to plastic surgery. Notifications of SSI from 86 health care facilities of the capital of a Brazilian state within nine years, approximately, were assessed. RGM, predominantly M. fortuitum (39.0%), was isolated from 66 cases of infection folowing plastic surgery, mainly mammoplasty. All the cases were woman, with an average of 32.9 years. Amikacin/clarithomycin was the prevalent therapeutic regimen, and most of the isolates showed resistance to ciprofloxacin. There was an association of infection by M. abscessus and use of surgical instruments that were not exclusive to the institution (P=0.048). Thus, these findings emphasize the importance of SSI notifications and strict monitoring of surgical instruments reprocessing.
Key words: Surgical site infection, plastic surgery, non-tuberculous mycobacteria.
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