This study aimed to determine the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing (ESBL) and multidrug resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ouagadougou in two poultry farms and two slaughterhouses. 375 cloacal swabs and 46 environment samples were collected and members of Enterobacteriaceae were isolated on EMB agar containing 4 µg/L of cefotaxime. E. coli and K. pneumoniae were identified using biochemical tests and ESBL production was confirmed by the double-disc synergy test. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the disc diffusion method. Prevalence of faecal ESBL producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 12.11% (95% CI = 9.3-15.6). In sampling sites, the prevalence were 5.15% in Farm A, 2.22% in Farm B, 17.50% in slaughterhouse C, 20.59% in slaughterhouse D and 19.57% in environment. E. coli (n = 43) and K. pneumoniae (n = 13) were frequently identified. ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae MDR was 89.29% (95% CI = 78.5–95.0). Resistance to aminoglycosides was 6.25% in poultry and 10.00% in slaughterhouse, fluoroquinolones 32.5% in slaughterhouse, sulfonamides 100% in poultry and 82.50% slaughterhouse, tetracycline 100% in poultry and 95.0% in slaughterhouse. This study showed that antimicrobial resistance in poultry in Ouagadougou portends a serious problem.
Key words: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), poultry, farms, slaughterhouses, Ouagadougou.
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