African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5124

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of factors fuelling global antimicrobial resistance and its economic and clinical burden

Larry L. Mweetwa
  • Larry L. Mweetwa
  • Department of Chemistry, Marine Biodiscovery Centre, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
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Paul Chukwuemeka Adiukwu
  • Paul Chukwuemeka Adiukwu
  • School of Pharmacy, University of Botswana, Plot 4775 Notwane Rd., Gaborone 00000, Botswana.
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Kabo O. Tshiamo
  • Kabo O. Tshiamo
  • Nathan and Family Pharmacy, P. O. Box 1299 ABG, Gaborone 00000, Botswana.
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Thatoyaone Kenaope
  • Thatoyaone Kenaope
  • Department of Pharmacy, Boitekanelo College, Plot 5824 Masetlheng Rd., Gaborone 00000, Botswana.
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Tiroyaone Nthusang
  • Tiroyaone Nthusang
  • Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Ridgeway Campus, P. O. Box 50110, Lusaka, Zambia.
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Emmanuel Tope Oluwabusola
  • Emmanuel Tope Oluwabusola
  • Department of Chemistry, Marine Biodiscovery Centre, University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
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  •  Received: 13 March 2020
  •  Accepted: 14 August 2020
  •  Published: 31 March 2021

Abstract

The aim of the research is to assess the factors fuelling Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and its economic and clinical burden. For this purpose, a systematic review was conducted, which included an analysis of factors and economic and clinical burden of AMR. It was found that poorly treated sewage; discharges from antibiotic manufacturing plants, empirical prescribing, lack of antimicrobial stewardship, poor AMR monitoring; hospital-acquired infections and human-to-human contacts with environmental pathogens through food; and increase in global trade and travel are the factors behind the spread of AMR. Further, based on previous research, the study found a significant economic and clinical burden caused by AMR infections. It is recommended that well-organised antimicrobial stewardship be in place, AMR monitoring, limit access to antibiotics via over the counter dispensing without prescriptions, mandatory sensitivity tests for antimicrobial prescription be considered, proper hygiene in hospitals and medicine manufacturing sites must be ensured to reduce global AMR.

 

Key words: Antimicrobial Resistance, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), antibiotic resistance, economic burden, clinical burden.