African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5131

Full Length Research Paper

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of leaf powders and extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth, Ocimum basilicum L., Persea americana Miller., Psidium guajava L. and Spondias purpurea L. from Morelos, México

Claudia Garduno Pizana
  • Claudia Garduno Pizana
  • Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bioticos, Instituto Politecnico Nacional. Carr. Yautepec-Jojutla Km. 6, Calle CEPROBI No. 8 San Isidro, Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico CP 62731
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Laura Barrera Necha*
  • Laura Barrera Necha*
  • Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bioticos, Instituto Politecnico Nacional. Carr. Yautepec-Jojutla Km. 6, Calle CEPROBI No. 8 San Isidro, Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico CP 62731
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Silvia Bautista Banos
  • Silvia Bautista Banos
  • Centro de Desarrollo de Productos Bioticos, Instituto Politecnico Nacional. Carr. Yautepec-Jojutla Km. 6, Calle CEPROBI No. 8 San Isidro, Yautepec, Morelos, Mexico CP 62731
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Ma. Yolanda Rios Gomez
  • Ma. Yolanda Rios Gomez
  • Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos. Av. Universidad 1001 Cuernavaca Morelos 62210, Mexico
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Laura Garcia Barrera
  • Laura Garcia Barrera
  • Centro de Investigacion en Biotecnologia Aplicada. Carretera Estatal Santa Ines TecuexcomacTepetitla Km 1.5 Tepetitla, Tlaxcala, Mexico CP 90700
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  •  Received: 03 October 2014
  •  Accepted: 14 November 2014
  •  Published: 03 December 2014

Abstract

Natural products from plants have great potential as novel fungicide sources for controlling pathogenic fungi. The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the leave powders and extract (Hexane, methanol and water) of Mexican plants and to test in vitro, their efficacy as antifungal potential against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli. All the species showed antifungal activity in the methanol extract. Chemical analysis of leave powders and extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia, Ocimum basilicum, Persea americana, Psidium guajava and Spondias purpurea by gas chromatography and spectrometry of masses (CG-MS) analysis showed that 89 volatile compounds were present. Leave powders and extracts contained the following: sesquiterpenes (46.06%), fatty acids (23.6%), diterpenes (14.6%), phenolic compound (11.23%) and monoterpenes (4.7%). Sesquiterpenes were not detected in B. crassifolia. The powders and leaf of extract, at 5% (hexane and methanol) revealed remarkable antifungal effect in the growth inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli with a range of 15 to 67%. The high chemical diversity of the analyzed plant species results in different effects on the development of the fungus.

Key words: Gladiolus, botanic extracts, pathogenic fungi, growth inhibition.