Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2006

Full Length Research Paper

Effectiveness of indirect and direct metalinguistic error correction techniques on the essays of senior secondary school students in South Western Nigeria

Toju Eyengho1 and Oyebisi Fawole2*
  1Department of Special Education and Curriculum Studies, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria. 2Department of Special Education and Curriculum Studies,School of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 10 July 2013
  •  Published: 10 September 2013



The study assessed error-correction techniques used in correcting students’ essays in English language and also determined the effects of these strategies and other related variables on students’ performance in essay writing with a view to improving students’ writing skill in English language in South Western Nigeria. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. The sample comprised of 180 SSII students who were randomly selected. The students were assigned to experimental groups: Indirect techniques (68), direct metalinguistic (63) and the control group (65). The results showed that the indirect approach was the most effective (x=11.88) compared to the direct metalinguistic technique (x=11.53) and the conventional method (x=10.4), F (2,177)=7.12, p<0.05. In conclusion, the implications of the findings are discussed.


Key words: Error correction, indirect technique, direct metalinguistic, technique, academic ability, gende