Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 1865

Full Length Research Paper

Psychological skills development and maintenance in professional soccer players: An experimental design with follow up measures

Bülent Okan Miçooğulları
  • Bülent Okan Miçooğulları
  • Department of Physical Education and Sports, Faculty of Education, Nevşehir Hacı Bektaş Veli University, 50300 Nevşehir, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 10 March 2016
  •  Accepted: 29 April 2016
  •  Published: 23 June 2016


Psychological skills training and Psychological well-being (PWB) are two essential concepts not only for general mental health but also for athletic performance in sport settings. However, the effects of problems in Sport Training Scale (PSTS) on sport performance and general psychological well-being have not been systematically examined through experimental designs, especially in professional soccer teams. Consequently, the goal of this research was to investigate the relationship between performance related psychological skills (team cohesion, confidence, and anxiety) and PWB and the effects of twelve weeks of cognitive-behavioral conceptual framework-based PST program on psychological skills of a professional soccer team. Results showed improved psychological skills and PWB after 12 weeks of PST. Follow up measurements indicated that improved psychological skills were preserved up to six months. Finally, psychological skills and PWB were found to be interconnected parameters, with congruence components. Overall, the PST program improved athletes’ team cohesion, self-confidence, anxiety and PWB levels.

Key words: Psychological skill training, psychological well-being, soccer.