This research focuses on criticism and praise in Arabic literature, history and poetry towards those in charge of the scientific movement in the Medieval Era. The research method was theoretical and qualitative. Many poets and scholars praised the rulers and sultans who established mosques and other educational institutions (madrasa-s) based on endowments, which had a role in sciences, intellectual and religious renaissance. They were subject to criticism or praise for their work or the educational role they followed. The topics of praise to the ulama centered on, their diligence and dissemination of science, as well as of their behavior and moral manners. On the other hand, the criticism of poetry centered on the mistakes of some scholars, their scientific stances in religious matters and criticizing scholars of the sultans for their attitudes in serving the rulers. Poets were also interested in criticizing scholars (ulama) who moved away from the path of morality, virtue, and shari‘a, and who lead the teaching without qualification or mismanagement of the educational process; and therefore do not preserve the rules of morality in lessons, education or discussions, and their lack of good morals towards students.
Key words: Arabic literature, criticism and praise, science and scholars, rulers and sultans, Medieval Era.
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