This paper carried out a contextual analysis of different models of performance appraisals in both developed and developing countries on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). First, it conducted a thorough examination of the contextual implications of performance appraisal models in developed and developing countries. Secondly, to better understand the various performance appraisal models for HEIs in both developed and developing countries, a review of the theoretical and conceptual framework of several performances appraisal models were conducted. The third phase of the review focused on performance appraisal in educational institutions in selected countries, as well as a review of Eric Alan Hanushek article on the role of human capital in economic growth in developing countries. Finally, the paper presented the findings and the research gaps identified in the review. In carrying out the first phase of this paper, the emphasis was placed on the importance of the context, which involves the interplay between the extrinsic (such as societal norms, economic and political situation of the country) and the inherent (institutional culture and leadership style) factors within which the HEI operates. Intrinsic and Extrinsic factors affecting the performance assessment of HEIs in Iraq, Kurdistan, have been reviewed. A similar review was carried out in HEIs in the United Kingdom and the United States of America to determine the extent to which organizational culture and social norms influence the formulation of performance appraisal models.
Keywords: Performance appraisal, higher education institution, institutional culture performance management.
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