International Journal of
Educational Administration and Policy Studies

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Educ. Admin. Pol. Stud.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-6656
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJEAPS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 215

Full Length Research Paper

Bujang Syaifar

Bujang Syaifar
  • Bujang Syaifar
  • Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi, Malaysia
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 20 March 2013
  •  Accepted: 16 February 2015
  •  Published: 28 February 2015

 ABSTRACT

Based on a preliminary survey, it was found that the education and training management of the public servant at the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi does not give significant impact to increase the official government performance. To find out the level of effectiveness of the training offered in the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi, a study was conducted. The aim of the study was to reveal the relationship between the characterictics of the trainee, trainers’ competence, learning strategy, and effectiveness of the learning process; and between the effectiveness of the learning process and the official government performance. The result of the study revealed: (1) The characterictics of the trainee, trainers’ competence, and learning strategy partially and simultaneously have low positive and significant influence on the effectiveness of the learning process. (2) The characterictics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategy partially and simultaneously have low positive and significant influence on the civil servants’ performance. (3) The effectiveness of the learning process has mild positive and significant influence on the civil servants’ performance. (4)  The characterictics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategy partially and simultaneously have mild positive and significant influence on the civil servants’ performance. It can be concluded that the diklat has given a positive but low impact to increase the performance of government officials. By implication, the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi should try to improve the quality of the learning process.

Key words: Effectiveness of education, training government officials.


 INTRODUCTION

In the context of government agencies, the low quality of human resources is indicated by the performance ofcivil servants. The low quality of human resources, according to Kasim (2007:25), is characterized by low performance of civil servants; the behavioris veryrule-driven, paterna-listic, andless professional. Plusnews Padang Expres, February 4, 2013 said, nearly half of the second echelon in the province of West Sumatra did not pass the competency teston financial management, as well as the management of good sand services. Given these conditions, the government has made various efforts to improve the quality of human resource personnel toc onduct training and development through training programmed.

In general, education and training in Indonesia has not equip graduates with competencies as expected. Building Capacity Analysis report by GTZ/ USAID-Clean Urban (2001:57), for example, indicates dissatisfaction with educationand training. This is because the duration is too long, expensive, and too theoretical, and not sufficient to develop the required competency training for improved performance ofcivil servants.

Based on the survey authors found indications that education and training are still using the conventional model, class-based, and management training has not been performing well. This is reflected as: lack of training needs analysis, education and training do not pay atten-tion to the characteristics of the tranee which are diverse, determination of the tranee is not selective, the number of teachers from among the practitioners who have not mastered the concept of adult learning, the monotonous use of learning strategies, and curriculum are less in sync with the training objectives to be achieved. Consequently, graduate training has less impact on performance improvement of the government officials.

Based on the strategic role of training in developing the competence of the government officials, the authors think that the effectiveness of education and training is important for government officials. Therefore, thefocus of research is on: 1) the characteristics of the trainee, 2) trainer competence, 3) learning strategies, 4) the effec-tiveness ofthe learning process, and 5) the performance of the government officials.

From the above discussion, the authors formulate the problemas follows: (1) Do the characteristicsof the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies partially and simultaneously influence the effectiveness ofthe learning process? (2) Do the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies partially and simultaneously affect the performance of government officials? (3) Does the effectiveness ofthe learning process affect the performance of government officials? (4) Do the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning processpartially and simultaneously affect the performance of government officials?

In general, the purpose of this study reveals the effectiveness of education and training on government officials, and their impact on the performance of govern-ment officials. While the specific objectives ofthe research are: (1) Reveal the direct and indirect effects of the characteristics of trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies partially and simultaneously on the effectiveness ofthe learning process. (2) Reveal the direct and indirect effects of the characteristics of trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies partially and simultaneous on the performance of the government officials. (3) Reveal the effectiveness of the learning process on the performance of government officials. (4) Reveal the direct and indirect effects of the characte-ristics ofthe trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning process partially and simultaneously on the performance of the government officials.

Based on this theory, performance means achieving the work/ performance/assessment work. According to Kastand Rosenzweig (1979:244), Performance=f (ability, motivation) and experience tell us that individual performance varies considerably, even when people are working with similar capabilities in essentially the same situation. In order for government officials to perform their work well to achieve the target, the ability of government officials needs to be prepared well.

Robbins (2001:20) says effectiveness could be defined as the degree to make an organization realize its goals. Effectiveness can be defined as the degree of implemen-tation of these objectives, reflecting the donations given to the organization. Further more Kneller (1971:272-273) argues the learning process in the interaction between teachers and learner scan be expressed in the form of control, use and assessment of attitudes, knowledge and skills base.

The purpose and objectives ofthe learning process are to make civil servant competent in performing office tasks measured by depth of knowledge, skills, behavior and attitudes. The key to successis the availability of educa-tion and training resources or quality learning component consisting of: curriculum, methods and media, teachers, participants, organizers, cost, facilities and infrastructure training (the Ministry of Domestic Affairs, 2004).

Uno (2007:65) argues it is a characteristic or quality aspect of individuals consisting of interests, attitudes, motivation, learning styles, thinking skills, and abilities possessed from the beginning. Syah (1997:133) stated that psychological fact or sare essential for the trainee education: (1) the level of intelligence, (2) attitudes, (3) talent, (4) interest, and (5) motivation. As aneducator, a trainer is in aposition that has functional scope, duties, responsibilities, and authority to educate, teach and /or train civil servants in government training institutions.

The trainer certainly has very fundamental role in the overall learning process.According to Ma'mun (2007:155) teachers require every effort to create the right circumstances (teaching), thus enabling the process in the student learning experience by mobilizing all sources and using appropriate  teaching  and  learning  strategies.

Impact of quality, professional ability, and trainers’ perfor-mance  not  only  contribute  to  the  quality  of  graduates which are output, but also the quality and performance of the graduates in the construction services.

Sudjana (2004:6) says that the pattern of learning strategy was selected actions to achieve the objectives of education and training. The strategy includes models, approaches, methods and techniques of learning. Thus, there is a difference between the models, approaches, methods and techniques of teaching, although eachis an extensionof thestrategy chosenin the learning process.In respect of this, conventional training based on cognitivism has some inherent disadvantages; so it will not be able to supply all the needs of learning required by the employee, although organized perfectly. One of the draw backs of the most basic, formal training is only capable of supplying explicit knowledge. In fact, employees need more precisely implicit knowledge in order to perform their duties effectively.

From thestudy ofthe theory and opinion of experts, the hypothesisis: (1) There is a positive and significant effect of the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies partially and simultaneously on the effectiveness of the learning process. (2) There is apositive and significant effect of the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies partially and simultaneously on the performance of the government officials. (3) There is apositive and significant impact of the effectiveness of the learning process on the performance of government officials. (4) There is apositive and significant effect of the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning process partially and simultaneously on the performance of the government officials.


 METHOD

The method of research used was quantitative survey methods in the form of descriptive analysis and inductive. The use of descriptive analysisis intended to get an idea of ??the effectiveness of education and training and performance of government officials. Inductive analysis is used to study the effects among variables.

Population was all training participants who attend training in 2012 at the Regional Training Center Dublin Kemendagriby 1040 people. Based on calculations, there was a sample set of 290 people. The instrument used was a questionnaire, quantified and measured using Likert scale.

In collecting data, two main techniques namely the study of documentation and questionnaires techniques were used. Questionnaire was distributed to 290 respondents in June 11, 2012s/dJuly 2, 2012.

Statistical hypothesis testing was done using Path Analysis with the help ofa computer and SPSS version 16.0.


 DISCUSSION

The characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies effect partially and simultaneously on learning effectiveness

The findings ofthe first study, there is a partial positive and significant effect of the characteristics of the trainee on the effectiveness of the learning process of the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi empirically test data significance levelof 95%. These findings indicate that the characte-ristics of the trainee as measured by the effectiveness of the learning process has a positive and significant impact on the level of effectiveness of the learning process. This means that the level of effectiveness of the learning process is explained by the characteristics of the trainee. The magnitude of the direct influence of the characteristics of the trainee on the effectiveness of the learning processis 0.295.

This finding is supported by Wlodskowski (1982:361), who concluded on the importance of attention given to the characteristics of the institution of the students, one of which concerns the motivation of learners. According to him, one way to organize information is to choose a large number of factors that influence motivation at different times in the learning process. This is very dependent on the role of an educator. Asan educator, achievement motivation may be helpful in planning activities, where the students need to exceland avoid failure. According to this theory, students who are highly motivated to achieve will respond well, and more challenging task given by educators will lead to getting good grades, providing accurate feedback and correction, submitting new problems and agreeing to try again.

The study's findings are reinforced by statementof Winkel (1991), that such behavior is viewed as an input (input, entering behavior) which is the starting point in the learning process that ends with an output (output, final behavior). Therefore, the ability to begin with the learners is one of the characteristics that need to be considered by the designer in the design of learning a particular lesson, because the initial capability will allow the learning process to be effective and achieve results as expected.

Trainers should realize that learning is very complex, because it involves pedagogical, psychological, and didactic aspects simultaneously. Pedagogical aspects show, that learning takes place in an educational environment. Therefore, the lecturer must accompany the training participants to success or master a specific competency. Psychologically, the training participants generally have different levels of development that require different materials. The learning process itself contains   variations,   such  as  learning  of  motor  skills, learning concepts, learning attitude, and so on (Gagne, 1984). These differences require different learning, according to the type of learning taking place. Didactic aspect refers to the arrangement by training participants under a lecturer. Therefore, the trainer must determine the right type of learning which is the most certain role in the learning process, taking into account the basic com-petencies to be achieved. External conditions must be created by the trainer pointed variations as well, and not the kind of learning from one another, although there are conditions that are most dominant in all kinds of learning. For that, the trainer must have extensive knowledge about the types of learning, the internal and external trainee, as well as how to conduct effective learning.

In the process of learning, motivation is one factor that determines the success of learning, in addition to charac-teristic of these early skills and attitudes of participants towards the subject and educators. According to Fuller (2006), learner motivation and participation is very important in supporting the success of the learning process. According to him, the motivation and participation in adult learning process is influenced by several environmental factors, such as social, economic and personal experience.

The second finding, partially contained a significant influence on the effectiveness of the ability of trainers at the learning process of the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggitested empirically at 95% significance. The magnitude of the direct influence of capabilities on the effectiveness of the learning process trainer is at 0.132.

This finding is supported by the opinion of Ma'mun (2007:155) who claimed that teachers always strive for the creation of appropriate teaching situations, allowing the process of experiential learning on self-learners, to mobilize all resources and use appropriate teaching and learning strategies.

This finding is in line with the opinion of La Sulo (1984: v) who says that an educator should master 14 skills of teaching components, namely: (1) variation of the stimulus, (2) opening of the learning strategy, (3) strategy to close the lesson, (4) cue, (5) the encouragement of study participation, (6) fluency asked, (7) questions explorationand tracking, (8) high-level questions, (9) diverge question, (10) to identify behavior, (11) illustrate and the use of examples, (12) speaking, (13) the planned repetition, and (14) the completeness of communication.

The trainer role in the learning process is not only to teach, but more broadly. Nasution (2000:76) argues, the role of the teacher will change from mainly conveying information to people who provide guidance and assistance to students on an individual basis; but he will not be prevented from providing or using classical teaching methods courses when required by learners. To run individual instruction, teachers must deepen their knowledge and skills about teaching procedures open to them.

According to Idris (1996:85-86) there are eight skills that a teacher should possess, namely: (1) explain the lesson, (2) asking questions, (3) provide reinforcement, (4) held a variety of teaching, (5) open and close the lesson, (6) to initiate discussion, (7) set the conditions studied, and (8) to teach small groups and individuals.

Mulyasa (2012:35) supports the findings of the study by saying, that in order to improve the quality of learning, educators need to have: (1) master and understand the basic competence and its relationship with other well competence, (2) love what they teach and love teaching as a profession, (3) learners’ understanding, experience, willingness, and performance, (4) using a variety of teaching methods and forms of competence of learners, (5) eliminate materials that are less important and less significant in relation to the establishment of competence; (6) be abreast of current knowledge, (7) setting up the learning process; (8) encouraging students to get better results, and (9) to connect past experience with the competencies to be developed.

The third findings, partially contained a significant influence on the effectiveness of learning strategies in the learning process of the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi tested empirically. The magnitude of the direct effect of learning strategies on the effectiveness of the learning process is 0.213. Therefore, to optimize the effectiveness of the learning process, the trainer should be able to select appropriate learning strategies, so that the learning process can be realized effectively.

The study's findings are supported by the opinion of Sudjana (2004:6), that learning strategy is a pattern of action chosen to achieve the training objectives. The strategy includes models, approaches, methods and techniques of teaching, although each is an extension of the strategy chosen in the learning process. The implication is, trainers should have the expertise to choose the right strategy in the learning process that includes the selection of models, approaches, methods, or techniques of learning.

Learning effective training requires active engagement of trainees, because they are the center of their learning and competence formation. The trainee should be involved in directional questioning, and seeking solutions to the problems of learning. The trainee should be encouraged to interpret the information provided by the trainer, until such information is accepted by common sense. Such a strategy, requires exchange of ideas, discussion, and debate, in order to achieve the same sense of any standard material. Through the effective learning,  competence  can  be  received  and  stored  the better, because it goes through the brain and forms the character of the process. Trainers need to create the right strategy, creating a fun learning situations, able to act as facilitators, have the ability to understand the trainees uniquely, and able to understand the different approaches to learning in order to guide trainee in an optimal way.

The fourth findings, contained the simultaneously existence of significant influence of the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies on the effectiveness of the learning process of the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi empirically tested at a significance level of 95%.In the descriptive analysis, the effectiveness of the learning process is included in the category of pretty. It has average value of 3.81 and 76.22%  performance of respondents. This indicates, the trainees perceive the learning process that followed as not been effective. The effectiveness of the learning process in this case was measured by three indicators, namely: increasing knowledge, changing attitudes/behaviors, and improving job skills.Based on inductive analysis, the path coefficient of the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies of the effectiveness of the learning process was 0.460. This shows the influence of the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies on the learning process has strength of 0.460. While the remaining 0.540 are influenced by variables other than the variables studied.Nearly half of the achievement of the effectiveness of the learning process is affected simultaneously from the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies. Therefore, the various parties who are competent in providing education and training to government officials should look at this seriously, so that education and training can be effectively implemented in accordance with the expecta-tions and needs of stakeholders.

This finding is supported by Megalia (2010), who said the quality of education and training is determined by the six major components, namely: 1) the accuracy of the structure and content of the curriculum, 2) readiness of trainee, 3) trainer competence, 4) the ability of the organizers, 5) completeness means and infrastructure, and 6) the suitability standard financing.

This finding is also supported by Sikula (1996), who showed that in the administration of the training program at least four important components need to be consi-dered, namely: 1) aspects of the method, 2) aspects of the instructors, 3) aspects of the curriculum, and 4) aspects of the facility.These findings suggested that the influence of these factors is essential to the attention of both lecturer and organizer of training in an effort to realize the  effectiveness  of  the  learning  process. The output will be high quality training.

 

Effect of the trainee characteristics, trainer competence, learning strategy partially and simultaneously on the performance of the government officials

The fifth findings, there is simultaneously a significant influence of the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning process on the performance of government officials at the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi empirically tested at a significance level of 95%.These findings suggest that the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning process as measured by the performance of the government officials simultaneously have a positive and significant impact on the level of performance of the government officials. That is, high and low performance of the government officials is explained by the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning process. The magnitude of the effect of simultaneous trainee characteristics, trainer competence, learning strategies and the effectiveness of the learning process directly affecting the performance of the government officials is 0.352.In the descriptive analysis, the performance of government officials is in a category. That is, performance is still not up to the government officials, and needs to be improved. Measuring the performance of government officials using four indicators, namely: improved morale, a change in behavior, improved workability, and improving job skills, information obtained from the measurement result in the category of pretty.

This finding is in line with the opinion of Sedar may anti (2001:51), who said among several factors that affect the performance of the employee, it can be treated through intervention or training is a factor of capacity that can be developed. Further said, the aim of education is to produce changes that are not only related to the amount of knowledge, but also in the form of skills, habits, attitudes, understanding, interest, adjustment, and other aspects related to a person.

The sixth findings, there are partially significant effect of training on the performance characteristics of the trainee in the government officials in the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukit-tinggi empirically tested at a significance level of 95%. The magnitude of the direct effects of the variables on the performance characteristics of the trainee of government officials is 0.119, while the magnitude of the indirect affects of variables on the performance characteristics  of the trainee of government officials through the variable effectiveness of the learning process is 0.237. Path coefficient calculation of direct and indirect effects, visible indirect effect of the variable characteristics of the trainee through the variable effectiveness of the learning process on performance is greater than direct influence. This is made possible by the influence of the variable skills and learning strategies; trainers equally provide a positive and significant effect on the performance of government officials. The characteristics of the trainee need to be fostered through effective learning process, in order to have a positive impact on increasing the performance of the government officials. Therefore, to optimize the performance of government officials should be pursued by the leadership to empower the individual charac-teristics accurately, thus providing an opportunity for officials to improve individual and organizational performance.

This finding is in line with the opinion of Ruky (2003:249) that education and training is considered effective, if it has positive impact on work behavior and organizational performance improvement. Work habits impact individual and organizational performance gained from the training. Effective education and training will show the participants manage to master competency training in the form of the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and behavior, as well as technical skills gained from effective learning process.

This finding is supported by the opinion of Mangkunegara (2003:161), that the criteria for successful implementation of the training include changes in attitudes and behaviors in order to achieve a success or a high-performance work place. Supposedly, the trainees who have been trained in the training institutions are able to master a variety of competencies required in education and training.

The study's findings are also supported by the opinion of Harris (1976:443) who argued that the perspective of the training program is "... the way to optimize the performance and successful decision making in organization." Empirical study results show that the performance of government officials is determined by the competencies that are formed as a result of learning in education and training institutions.

The seventh findings, there are partially significant effect of the trainer competence on the performance of the government officials at the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi empirically tested at a significance level of 95%. The magnitude of the direct effects of the variables on the performance capabilities of the government officials is 0.114, while the magnitude of the indirect effects of variables on the performance capabilities of the government officials with the variable effectiveness of the learning process is 0.167.The calculation gives the meaning, that the indirect effect of variable trainer competence with variable effectiveness of the learning process on performance is greater than direct influence. This was possible, because of the influence of the variable characteristics of the trainee, and learning strate-gies to simultaneously deliver a positive and significant effect on the performance of government officials.The trainers’ capabilities need to be fostered by enhancing the competencies that have a positive impact on increasing the performance of the government officials. In addition, to optimize the performance of government officials, local governments should be able to seek to establish communication with the trainer on education and training institutions to facilitate the alumni in order to develop further after their training program.

This finding suggests, a trainer’s moral responsibility is not only during the learning process, but also to share responsibility in improving the performance of graduates through training/consulting implementation of a new skills acquired during the training. The lecturers must have the ability to provide mentoring in the workplace (on the job training) for alumni in the execution of their duties. In addition, leaders of each work unit area are required to provide stimulation and encouragement or motivation of any civil servant in the works. So the authorities should carry out the task welland develop their capabilities, skill, be diligent and proud of their work. This becomes very necessary to improve the performance of government officials.

Government officials in achieving accomplishments have a hope, that there is a chance that a particular effort will lead to a certain level of achievement. According to Hersey (1995:49), there are seven components that are associated with hope, namely: 1) good working conditions, (2) feelings of belonging, (3) discipline wise, 4) full credit for completion of work, (5) loyalty leadership, (6) the sympathetic understanding of personal issues, and (7) job security.

Eighth findings, partially contained a significant influence on the performance of the learning strategy of the government officials at the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi empirically tested at a significance level of 95%. The magnitude of the direct effects of the variables on the performance of the learning strategies of the government officials is 0.185, while the magnitude of the indirect effects of variables on the performance of the learning strategies of the government officials through the variable effectiveness of the learning process is 0.270.Path coefficient calculation of direct and indirect effects show, that the indirect effect of variable effectiveness of learning strategies through a learning process  variables  on  the  performance  is  greater  than direct influence. This was possible, because of the influence of the variable characteristics of the trainee and the ability oftrainer equally provide a positive and significant effect on the performance of government officials. The selection and determination of learning strategies need to be considered carefully, in order to have a positive impact on increasing the performance of the government officials.

This finding is supported by the opinion of Hasibuan (1997:83-85) who said the process or step of the training should be done with the involvement of several key points including the objectives, methods, trainee, trainers, and training process. Then need to set up the necessary infrastructure, in which place and tools to be used should be prepared with the basic principles of economics and based on the training objectives to be achieved. The use of appropriate learning strategies in learning will facilitate the trainees’ understanding of the content that is delivered by the trainer. Competency training can be improved during the learning process. Changes in behavior or control of competency will be seen as trainees return to their respective work units.

 

Effect of the effectiveness of learning process on the  performance of government officials

The ninth findings, there was a significant effect of the effectiveness of the learning process on the performance of government officials empirically tested on the 95% significance level. The magnitude of the direct effect of the variable effectiveness of the learning process on the performance of government officials at the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggiis 0.399. These findings suggest that the effectiveness of the learning process as measured by the performance of the government officials has a positive and significant impact on the level of performance of the government officials. This means that the level of performance of government officials is explained by the effectiveness of the learning process.

This finding is supported by a qualitative study of Wiyoso (2008) who concludes that education and training has increasingly normative positive impact on the implementation of work more effectively and productively. The essence of training is a learning process. Therefore, the effectiveness of education and training can not be separated from the influence of the quality of learning components, namely: trainees, curriculum, trainers, methods, facilities, and organizers in facilitating the learning process. If the learning components are working properly, then the output in the form of mastery learning competency training can contribute to improving the performance of government officials.

 

Effect of the trainee characteristics, trainer competence, learning strategies and learning effectiveness partially and simultaneously on performance of government officials

Tenth findings, simultaneously, there is a significant influence of the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning process on the performance of government officials empirically tested at significance level of 95%.The magnitude of the direct effect of the variable characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning process on the performance of government officials is 0.593.These findings prove that the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning process as measured by the performance of the government officials has a positive and significant impact on the level of performance of the government officials. That is, high and low performance of the government officials is explained by the charac-teristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning process.

This finding is supported by Ruky (2003:249) who stated that effective education and training assessed had positive impact on behavior and organizational perfor-mance improvement.Similarly, Mangkunegara (2003:161) express opinions and Burton Goldstein, that the criteria for successful implementation of the training include changes in attitudes and behaviors in order to achieve a successful job or a high-performance workplace.

The results of empirical studies show, the performance of government officials is determined by the compe-tencies that are formed as a result of training learning. The effectiveness of education and training in the formation of the competence of the government officials will have a major impact on performance improvement of the government officials. Empirically identified six impor-tant alternatives are: 1) develop training competency standards; 2) conduct training needs analysis; 3) holding the selection of administrative, academic, psychological, and health areas; 4) choose a trainer selectively; 5) develop a curriculum that is ideal as needed; 6) implement during and post-training evaluation.

Factors other than the factors that have been identified previously are of course also important in improving the effectiveness of education and training. Theoretical, regulatory, and empirical logic emphasized that the final assessment of the effectiveness of education and training apparatus is increased competency and performance improvement in the job. Competency of the government officials is not merely paying attention to the cognitive aspects, but also the values ??as the main goal of the training process. This is in line with the direction of good governance in the bureaucracy, that wants  the  individual elements of the state officials as civil servants and public servant should have the ethics and morality of duty, also has high accountability and respect for the aspirations and demands of public interest.Improved performance of the government officials has to do with efforts to improve the characteristics of the trainee in accordance with the requirements of administrative, academic and psychologi-cally improved trainer; enhance flexible learning strategies, and improve the effectiveness of the learning process is optimal.


 CONCLUSION

Based on the above discussion, the authors conclude the following: (1) Overall descriptive analysis found that the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, learning strategies, the effectiveness of the learning process, and the performance of government officials have not reached the ideal condition. In inductive analysis, the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies have a relatively low impact on the effectiveness of the learning process in the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi; (2) In the descriptive analysis, the effectiveness of the learning process has not yet reached the ideal condition. Inductive analysis showed that the effectiveness of the learning process has a relatively modest effect on the performance of government officials at the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi; (3) Descriptive analysis showed the performance of government officials have not reached the ideal condition. Inductive analysis showed that partially or simultaneously the trainee characteristics, trainer competence, learning strategies, and the effectiveness of the learning process have a relatively modest effect on the performance of government officials at the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs Regional Bukittinggi; (4) The general conclusion on this research is the training has a positive, but relatively moderate impact on government officials’s performance improvement. Remediation efforts on the characteristics of the trainee, trainer competence, and learning strategies need to be done by the government through the education and training center, training agency, and related agencies, so that training can be organized effectively.


 ADVICE

Based on the conclusion, there are some suggestions that need to be considered and acted upon as follows: (1) Repair characteristics of the trainee, trainer  competence, and learning strategies need to be done by the head of education and training center, trainer, organizer, and related institutions. (2) Increased trainee characteristics, trainer competence, and learning strategies that facilitate optimal education and training to achieve improved performance of the government officials, the characteristics of the trainee in relation to education and training, so that training candidate selection process needs to be done starting with the standard measurement of competence in accordance with duties and functions, as well as the development of training motivation of potential trainee. For the trainer competence, trainer must meet competency standards, which include: a) learning management competencies, b) personal competence, c) social competence, and d) substantive competence. For learning strategies, in the process of learning the use of learning strategies tailored to the characteristics of trainee; (3) The effectiveness of the learning process, to do the following things, namely: a) to set standards of competence training, b) conduct training needs analysis, c) organize the selection of administrative, academic, psychological, and health areas, d) selectively choose trainer, c) make up the ideal curriculum as needed, and (6) an evaluation during and after training; (4) The effectiveness of education and training government personnel selection and application of the proposed training candidates, then the suggestions are as follows:a)The Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs recruiting candidates for training government officials were selected, based on aspects of administrative, academic, psychological, and health.b) The Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs collaboration with provincial organizes technical training positions improve perfor-mance, which also produces the definitive performance standards office, legitimatif, and legalitatif.c) Regional employment board and the bureau of the provincial secretariat organizations job analysis effectively to produce job descriptions and job requirements as a standard of competence for employees.d) Province/Regency/City autonomously follow the additional requirement of substantive technical training for civil servants will and has held positions.e)The Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs and LAN-RI developed a training needs analysis that involves government validation Province/Regency/City, so the training curriculum in accordance with the required standard of competence in the field significantly. f) Curriculum training government officials in accordance with the needs of personnel competence, validity and reliability need to be tested by the LAN-RI and the Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs. g) The Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs and provincial training agency to change the   format   of   graduate   certificate   of  education  and training be passed certificate of education and training, with consequent normative summative evaluation.h) The authorities like advisory board position and rank conduct competency tests independently and consistently before placing the officials of government in the field of duty. i) The Center of Education and Training of Ministry of Domestic Affairs  and other training providers (training agency Provincial/District/City), held a post-training evaluation based on competency standards set. j) The bureauof organization (Province/District/City) held a performance evaluation every year and coordinated personnel using valid performance standards. k) Research institutions that conduct more research on training government officials in the office, and can also by manipulating the variables used in the measurement of the effectiveness of education and training of civil servants who have not yet been studied.

 

Note:

This article is written from a dissertation writers in Padang State University Graduate with Tim Promoter: Prof. Dr. Imam Sodikoen, M.Pd., Prof. Drs. Mohd. Ansyar, Ph.D. and Prof. Jalius Jama, Ph.D.


 CONFLICT OF INTERESTS

The author has not declared any conflict of interest.



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