International Journal of
Nursing and Midwifery

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Nurs. Midwifery
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2456
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJNM
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 201

Full Length Research Paper

Perineal trauma following vaginal delivery in a low-income area: A criterion-based audit

Julie Mantzius
  • Julie Mantzius
  • Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
  • Google Scholar
Martin Rudnicki
  • Martin Rudnicki
  • Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
  • Google Scholar
Ellen Skovbjerg
  • Ellen Skovbjerg
  • Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
  • Google Scholar
Eusebious Maro
  • Eusebious Maro
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Dorah Mrema
  • Dorah Mrema
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Tanzania.
  • Google Scholar
Vibeke Rasch
  • Vibeke Rasch
  • Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
  • Google Scholar
Bjarke Lund Sørensen
  • Bjarke Lund Sørensen
  • Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Received: 14 July 2020
  •  Accepted: 14 September 2020
  •  Published: 31 October 2020

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Obioha KC, Ugwu EO, Obi SN, Dim CC, Oguanuo TC (2015). Prevalence and predictors of urinary/anal incontinence after vaginal delivery: prospective study of Nigerian women. The International Urogynecology Journal 26(9):1347-1354.
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Pirhonen JP, Grenman SE, Haadem K, Gudmundsson S, Lindqvist P, Siihola S (1998). Frequency of anal sphincter rupture at delivery in Sweden and Finland-result of difference in manual help to the baby's head. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 77:974-977.
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Pirkle CM, Dumont A, Zunzunegui MV (2011). Criterion-based clinical audit to assess quality of obstetrical care in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. The International Journal for Quality in Health Care 23(4):456-463.
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Rikard-Bell J, Iyer J, Rane A (2014). Perineal outcome and the risk of pelvic floor dysfunction: a cohort study of primiparous women. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 54:371-376.
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Walker GJA, Gunasekera P (2011). Pelvic organ prolapse and incontinence in developing countries: review of prevalence and risk factors. International Urogynecology 22(2):127-135.
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Wagaarachchi PT, Graham WJ, Penney GC, McCaw-Binns A, Yeboah Antwi K, Hall MH (2001). Holding up a mirror: changing obstetric practice through criterion-based clinical audit in developing countries. The International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 74:119-130.
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