International Journal of
Psychology and Counselling

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Psychol. Couns.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2499
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 220

Full Length Research Paper

Reliability Generalization (RG) of the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS)

Samuel A. Montano
  • Samuel A. Montano
  • Fresno City College, Psychological Services, Fresno, CA, USA.
  • Google Scholar
Trisha M. Kivisalu
  • Trisha M. Kivisalu
  • Private Practise, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
  • Google Scholar
Jennifer L. Harrison
  • Jennifer L. Harrison
  • Minnesota DHS, Direct Care and Treatment - Forensic Services, St. Peter, MN, USA.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 13 May 2020
  •  Accepted: 15 June 2020
  •  Published: 31 July 2020


Due to an increased usage of college counseling centers in the treatment of mental health concerns, it is imperative that centers implement appropriate assessments of psychological symptoms. We examined the Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS), which was designed as a routine instrument to assess a range of mental health symptoms. Proper assessment and reporting of reliability are essential before one can meaningfully interpret assessment outcomes. This study employed a meta-analytic technique, Reliability Generalization (RG), to examine reporting practices, and analyze the reported CCAPS reliability estimates. Additionally, reported CCAPS reliability estimates were analyzed in order to assess diversity variables, which can affect the measurement of psychological symptoms and distress. Only 22% (N = 12) of the 54 total research studies reported reliability estimates for the CCAPS. Most studies cited a previous source and others simply noted that the measure was “reliable” (66%; N = 25). More information is needed for subscale reliability since the current CCAPS Cronbach’s alphas ranged from fair to excellent (> 0.60 - > 0.80). An increase in reliability reporting is needed to examine the CCAPS’ use in various sample populations. Implications for reliability reporting standards are discussed.


Key words: Reliability Generalization, Counseling Center Assessment of Psychological Symptoms (CCAPS), reliability reporting, meta-analysis.