International Journal of
Psychology and Counselling

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Psychol. Couns.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2499
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 220

Full Length Research Paper

Cross-cultural adaptation of an intimate partner violence screening tool (WAST) for the Mozambican context; implications for more effective HIV prevention and treatment counseling

Joaquim S. Matavel
  • Joaquim S. Matavel
  • Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Health, Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique
  • Google Scholar
Khátia Munguambe
  • Khátia Munguambe
  • Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University; Manhiça Health Research Center, Mozambique.
  • Google Scholar
Debra Rose Wilson
  • Debra Rose Wilson
  • Austin Peay University, Tennessee, USA; Walden University, United States.
  • Google Scholar
Osvaldo Loquiha
  • Osvaldo Loquiha
  • Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.
  • Google Scholar
James G. Linn
  • James G. Linn
  • Optimal Solutions, Healthcare and International Development, Meharry Medical College, USA.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 20 August 2021
  •  Accepted: 27 September 2021
  •  Published: 31 October 2021


This article aims to translate and implement the cross-cultural adaptation of the WAST - Woman Abuse Screening Tool, designed in English and used to track violence by an intimate partner. For adaptation, the conceptual equivalence of terms and semantics between the original version in English and the version translated into Portuguese was evaluated, the result of two translations and back-translation, discussion by a panel of experts, establishment of the preliminary version and finally testing in 88 participants of both sexes, selected in two health units at the level of primary health care. The cross-cultural adaptation resulted in an equivalence of concepts and semantics between the initial translation and the final back-translation. From the testing it was concluded that the version of WAST translated and adapted to the Mozambican context, has good internal consistency, the scales of WAST-Short (α = 0.813) such as those of IPV or WAST-Long (α = 0.834) are highly related. The two scales do not discriminate between men and women (WAST-Short p = 0.204, WAST-Long p = 0.271).  Implications are discussed for more effective HIV and violence prevention and treatment counseling.


Key words: Violence, intimate partner, instruments, adaptation, testing, intimate partner violence, HIV prevention, treatment.