Journal of
Horticulture and Forestry

  • Abbreviation: J. Hortic. For.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9782
  • DOI: 10.5897/JHF
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 302

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of methyl bromide alternatives on loblolly pine production and seedling quality over three growing seasons at the Pine Hill Nursery in Camden, Alabama

Scott A. Enebak
  • Scott A. Enebak
  • Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative, Forest Health Dynamics Laboratory, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, 602 Duncan Drive, Auburn University, Alabama, 36849, USA.
  • Google Scholar
D. Paul Jackson
  • D. Paul Jackson
  • Department of Agricultural Sciences, Louisiana Tech University, P. O. Box 10198, Ruston, LA 71272, USA
  • Google Scholar
Tom E. Starkey
  • Tom E. Starkey
  • Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative, Forest Health Dynamics Laboratory, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, 602 Duncan Drive, Auburn University, Alabama, 36849, USA.
  • Google Scholar
Marie Quicke
  • Marie Quicke
  • Southern Forest Nursery Management Cooperative, Forest Health Dynamics Laboratory, School of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, 602 Duncan Drive, Auburn University, Alabama, 36849, USA.
  • Google Scholar


  •  Accepted: 16 April 2013
  •  Published: 30 April 2013

Abstract

Forest-tree nurseries in the United States have relied on methyl bromide (MBr) soil fumigation to control weeds, fungi, and nematodes. Due to the world-wide phase-out of MBr use, finding a soil fumigant alternative for MBr has been a priority for the forest nursery industry. A large-scale study comparing seven fumigants using operational application techniques and normal nursery management practices over three growing seasons was installed to determine the effects of MBr alternatives on seedling quality and quantity. Seedling densities at the end of the first growing season were similar across all soil fumigants tested. The newer chemistries, Pic+ and dimethyl-disulfide (DMDS), had seedlings with similar root collar diameters (RCDs) as MBr during the first and second growing seasons. Seedling RCDs declined for all treatments over the 3-year rotation due to the buildup of soilborne pests and weeds. Seedling root architecture and root morphology were similar for all soil fumigants. At the end of each growing season, nursery soils had similar levels of Trichoderma and nematode populations across all soil fumigants tested. These trials indicate that, while not the perfect replacement in all nursery soils, seedling production is still possible without MBr if compounds such as chloropicrin are used and managers pay close attention to weed and nematode pests that are less susceptible to chloropicrin than MBr.

 

Key words: Soil fumigation, chloropicrin, soilborne fungi, nematodes, Pinus taeda.