Journal of
Horticulture and Forestry

  • Abbreviation: J. Hortic. For.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9782
  • DOI: 10.5897/JHF
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 302

Full Length Research Paper

Evaluation of multi-functional fodder tree and shrub species in mid-altitudes of South Omo Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Asmelash Tesfaye Gebremedhin
  • Asmelash Tesfaye Gebremedhin
  • Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Arba Minch University College of Agriculture, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Alemayehu Hido Gedo
  • Alemayehu Hido Gedo
  • Hawassa Environment, Forest and Climate Change Center, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Getahun Yakob Edo
  • Getahun Yakob Edo
  • Southern Agricultural Research Institute, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar
Shimelis Tessema Haile
  • Shimelis Tessema Haile
  • Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 12 December 2019
  •  Accepted: 03 March 2020
  •  Published: 31 March 2020


Abuye C, Urga K, Knapp H, Selmar D, Omwega AM, Mungi JK (2003). A compositional study of Moringa stenopetala leaves. East African Medical Journal 80(5):247-252.
Aganga AA, Tshwenyane SO (2003). Feeding values and Anti-Nutritive Factors of Forage Tree legumes. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 2(3):170-177.
Akinnifesi FK, Rowe EC, Livesley SJ, Kwesiga F, Vanlauwe B, Akinnifesi FK, Rowe EC, Livesley SJ, Kwesiga F, Vanlauwe B, Alegre J (2004). Tree Root Architecture, Below-ground interactions in tropical Agroeco-systems: In: Cadisch G., van Noordwijk M., Ong C.K. (Eds), CAB International, Wallingford, UK pp. 61-81.
Alam MP, Djajanigara A. (1994). Nutritive value and yield of potential tree leaves and shrubs in Bangladesh. Proc. 7th AAAP Animal Science Congress on Sustainable Animal Production and Environment. Bali, Indonesia, pp. 317-318.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (2000). Official methods of analysis (15th ed.). Inc., Washington D.C., USA.
Azim AG, Khan A, Ahmad J, Ayaz M, Mirza IH (2001). Nutritional Evaluation of Fodder Tree Leaves with Goats. Asian-Australasian Journal Animal Science 15(1):34-37.
Bakshi MPS, Wadhwa M (2007). Tree leaves as complete feed for goat kids. Small Ruminant Research 69:74-78.
Bekele TA (2007). Useful trees of Ethiopia: identification, propagation, and management in 17 agroecological zones. Nairobi: RELMA in ICRAF Project 552 p. ISBN 92 9059 212 5
Bisht V, Sirohi C, Rana BS (2014). Effect of lopping intensities on tree growth and grass yield under Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) based Silvipastoral system on Sodic land. Forage Research 40(3):168-172.
Chakeredza S, Hove L, Akinnifesi F, Franzel S, Ajayi O, Sileshi G (2007). Managing fodder trees as a solution to human-livestock food conflicts and their contribution to income generation for smallholder farmers in southern Africa. Natural Resources Forum 31(4):286-296.
Chalchissa G, Mekasha Y, Urge M (2014). Feed resources quality and feeding practices in Urban and Peri-urban dairy production of Southern Ethiopia. Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems 17(3):539-546.
Cheema UB, Sultan JI, Javaid A, Akhtar P, Shahid M (2011). Chemical composition, mineral profile and in situ digestion kinetics of fodder leaves of four native trees, Pakistan Journal of Botany 43(1):397-404.
Chiffelle GI, Huerta FA, Lizana RD (2008). Physical and chemical characterization of Melia azedarach L. fruit and leaf for use as a botanical insecticide. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 69(1):38- 45.
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2007). Summary and Statistical report of the 2007 population and housing census population size by age and sex. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia population census commission P 78.
Central Statistical Agency (CSA) (2017). Agricultural sampling survey volume II. Livestock and Livestock characteristics statistical Bulletin 585. Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency, pp. 64-69.
Debela E, Tolera A, Eik LO, Salte R (2011). Nutritive value of morphological fractions of Sesbania sesban and Desmodium intortum. Tropical Subtropical Agroecosystems 14:793-805.
Degefu T, Wolde-meskel E, Frostegard A (2011). Multilocus sequence analyses reveal several unnamed Mesorhizobium genospecies nodulating Acacia species and Sesbania sesban trees in Southern regions of Ethiopia. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 34:216-226.
Distel RA, Didoné NG, Moretto AS (2005). Variations in chemical composition associated with tissue aging in palatable and unpalatable grasses native to central Argentina. Journal of Arid Environment 62(2):351-357.
Eltayb MA, Warag EE, Elhuiri A (2013). Effect of pruning height on growth of five mulberry species. Journal of Forest Products and Industries 2(2):27-30.
Emmanuel LS, Tsado DN (2011). Forage and Fodder Crop Production in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects. World Journal Life Science and Medical Research1(4):88.
Ethiopian Sheep and Goat Productivity (ESGIP) (2008). Ethiopian Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program. Fodder establishment, management and utilization techniques for the smallholder. Technical Bulletin 17:8
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2018). Ethiopia: Report on feed inventory and feed balance, 2018. Rome, Italy 160 p. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO
Franzel S, Carsan S, Lukuyu B, Sinja J, Wambugu C (2014). Fodder trees for improving livestock productivity and smallholder livelihoods in Africa. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 6:98-103 
Gomase P, Gomase P, Anjum S, Shakil S, Shahnavaj KM (2012). Sesbania sesban Linn: A Review on Its Ethnobotany, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile, Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharameutical Sciences 2(12):11-14.
Griswold KE, Apgar GA., Bouton J, Firkins JL (2003). Effects of urea infusion and ruminal degradable protein concentration on microbial growth, digestibility, and fermentation in continuous culture. Journal of Animal Science 81:329-36.
Hamer A, Franzel S, Mounkoro B (2007). Assessing profitability of fodder banks using farmers' criteria in the desert margins of West Africa. Land Degradation and Development 18(6):670-679.
Hébert F, Krause C, Plourde P, Achim A, Prégent G, Ménétrier J (2016). Effect of Tree Spacing on Tree Level Volume Growth, Morphology, and Wood Properties in a 25-Year-Old Pinusbanksiana Plantation in the Boreal Forest of Quebec. Forests 7(11):276; 
Hristov AN, Etter RP, Ropp JK., Grandeen KL (2004). Effect of dietary crude protein level and degradability on ruminal fermentation and nitrogen utilization in lactating dairy cows. Journal of Animal Science 82(11):3219-3229.
Jamala GY, Tarimbuka IL, Moris D, Mahai S (2013). The Scope and Potentials of Fodder Trees and Shrubs in Agroforestry. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science 5(4):11-17.
Jiru D, Sonder K, Alemayehu L, Mekonen Y, Anjulo A (2006). Leaf yield and nutritive value of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera accessions: Its potential role in food security in constrained dry farming agroforestry system. Proceedings of the Moringa and other highly nutritious plant resources: Strategies, standards and markets for a better impact on nutrition in Africa, Accra, Ghana November 16-18.
Jose S, Gillespie AR, Pallardy SG (2004). Interspecific interactions in temperate agroforestry. Agroforestry Systems 61: 237-255.
Kebede M, Shimbir T, Kasa G, Abera D, Girma T (2017). Description, characterization and classification of the major soils in Jinka Agricultural Research Center, South Western Ethiopia. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management 8(3):61-69 .
Lijalem T, Beyan M, Banerjee S (2015). Assessment of Marketing Livestock and Meat in Hawassa Southern Ethiopia. Assessment 12.
Lukhele MS, Van Ryssen JBJ (2003). The chemical composition and potential nutritive value of the foliage of four subtropical tree species in southern Africa for ruminants. South African Journal Animal Science 33(2):132-141.
Makumba W, Akinnifesi FK, Janssen BH (2009). Spatial rooting patterns of Gliricidia, Pigeon pea and maize intercrops and effect on profile soil N and P distribution in southern Malawi. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4(4):278-288.
Manaye T, Tolera A, Zewdu T (2009). Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of Sesbania sesban. Livestock Science 122:24-29. 
Mandal L (1997). Nutritive values of tree leaves of some tropical species for goats. Small Ruminant Research 24:95-105.
Mani RP, Pandey A, Goswami S, Tripathi P, Kumudhavalli V, Singh AP (2011). Phytochemical Screening and In-vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaves of Sesbania sesban (L) Merr. Free Radic. Antioxidants 3(1):66-69.
Mekonnen K., Buresha RJ, Coe R, Kipleting KM (1999). Root length and nitrate under Sesbania sesban: Vertical and horizontal distribution and variability. Agroforestry Systems 42:265-282.
Melesse A (2011). Comparative assessment on chemical compositions and feeding values of leaves of Moringa stenopetala and Moringa oleifera using in vitro gas production method. Ethiopian Journal Applied Science Technology 2(2):31-41.
Melesse A, Bulang M, Kluth H (2009). Evaluating the nutritive values and in vitro degradability characteristics of leaves, seeds and seedpods from Moringa stenopetala. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 89(2):281-297.
Menbere S (2014). Livestock Production Constrains Priorities and its Determinant Factors in Mixed Farming System of Southern Ethiopia. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 10(4):169-177. ISSN 1817-3047 
Miller AW, Pallardy SG (2001). Resource competition across the crop-tree interface in a maize-silver maple temperate alley cropping stand in Missouri. Agroforestry Systems 53(3):247-259.
Nassoro Z (2014). Evaluation of nutritive value of browse tree fodder species Indigenous to Kiteto and Kongwa Districts. Master of Science in Biodiversity Conservation the University of Dodoma. pp. 1-84.
Nigussie Z, Alemayehu G (2013). Sesbania sesban (L.) Merrill: Potential uses of an underutilized multipurpose tree in Ethiopia Africa Journal of Plant Science 7(10):468-475. 
Oosting SJ, Mekoya A, Fernandez-Rivera S, Van der Zijpp AJ (2011). Sesbania sesban as a fodder tree in Ethiopian livestock farming systems: feeding practices and farmers' perception of feeding effects on sheep performance. Livestock Science 139(1-2):135-141.
Orskov ER (1982). Protein Nutrition in Ruminants. Agricultural systems Academic Press, London 11(2):155.
Orwa C, Mutua A., Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Simons A (2009). Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0 
Osuga I.M, Abdulrazak SA, Nishino N, Ichinhe T, Fujihara T (2019). Potential nutritive value of selected browse species from Kenya using in vitro gas production technique and polyethylene glycol. Livestock Research for Rural Development 18:171.
Raghuvansi SKS, Prasad R, Mishra AS, Chaturvedi OH, Tripathi MK, Misra AK, Saraswat BL, Jakhmola RC (2007). Effect of inclusion of tree leaves in feed on nutrient utilization and rumen fermentation in sheep. Bioresource Technology 98(3):511-517.
Rao MR, Nair PKR, Ong CK (1998). Biophysical interactions in tropical agroforestry systems, Agroforestry Systems, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands 38:3-50.
Rubanza CDK., Shem MN, Otsyina ER, Ichinohe I, Fujihara T (2003). Content of phenolics and tannins in leaves and pods of some Acacia and Dichrostachys species and effects on in vitro digestibility. Journal of Animal Feed Science 12:645-663.
Sabra HA, Hassan SG, Mohamed MI (2010). Effect of Sesbania sesban (Sesbania egyptiaca) Supplementation on the Reproductive Performances of Baladi Sheep as Compared to Bereseem (Egyptian Clover). Journal of Reproduction and Infertility 1(3):66-70.
Samson L, Frehiwot M (2014). Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access. In Springer plus. 
Samuel D, Terefe R, Senbeto M, Daba M (2016). Evaluation of Two Moringa Species for Adaptability and Growth Performance under Bako Conditions Evaluation 6(9)
Sanchez NR, Ledin S, Ledin I (2006). Biomass production and chemical composition of Moringa oleifera under different management regimes in Nicaragua. Agroforestry Systems 66:231-242.
Sánchez NR (2006). Moringa oleifera and Cratylia argentea: potential fodder species for ruminants in Nicaragua. Doctoral thesis ISSN 1652-6880, ISBN 91-576-7050-1.
Savon LV, Gutierrez OB, Febles GP (2016): Mulberry, moringa and tithonia in animal feed, and other uses. Results in Latin America and the Caribbean, instituto de ciencia animal, FAO, Cuba pp 1-72.
Schmidek A, Takahashi R, Nuñes de Medeiros A, Resende KT (2002). Bromatological composition and degradation rate of mulberry in goats. pp. 207-211, in: M.D. Sánchez (ed.). Mulberry for Animal Production. Proceedings of an electronic conference carried out between May and August, 2000. FAO Animal Production and Health Paper P 147.
Seifu E (2014). Actual and Potential Applications of Moringa stenopetala, Under utilized Indigenous Vegetable of Southern Ethiopia: A Review International Journal of Agricultural and Food Research 3(4). ISSN 1929-0969
Seyoum B, Zinash S (1989). The Composition of Ethiopian Feedstuffs, Research Report no. 6. Institute of Agricultural Research; Addis Ababa, Ethiopia P 33.
Shinde KS, Avhad SB, Jamadar SV, Hiware CJ (2012). Impact of spacing, fertilizer on the productivity of mulberry (Morus alba L.) V1 variety. Life science Bulletin 9(2):276-280.
Singh B, Makkar HPS (2002) .The potential of mulberry foliage as a feed supplement in India. p. 139, In: M.D. Sánchez (ed.). Mulberry for animal production. Proceedings of an electronic conference carried out between May and August 2000. [FAO] Animal Production and Health Paper, No. 147.
Singh B, Singh P, Gill RIS (2016). Seasonal variation in biomass and nitrogen content of fine roots of bead tree (Melia azedarach) under different nutrient levels in an agroforestry system. Range Management. and Agroforestry 37(2):192-200. ISSN 0971-2070.
Stein-müller N, Sonder K, Kroschel J (2002). Fodder tree research with Moringa stenopetala - a daily leafy vegetable of Konso people, Ethiopia, 
Sultan JI. Rahim IU, Nawaz H, Yaqoob M, Javed I (2008). Nutritional evaluation of fodder tree leaves of northern grasslands of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 40(6):2503-2512.
Teferi A, Solomon M, Lisanework N (2008). Management and utilization of browse species as livestock feed in semi-arid districts of northern Ethiopia. Livestock Research for Rural Development 20(6):86.
Tessema Z, Baars RMT (2004). Chemical composition, in vitro dry matter digestibility and ruminal degradation of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach.) mixed with different levels of Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. Animal Feed Science Technology 117:29-41.
Tolera A, Yami A, Alemu D (2012). Livestock Feed Resources in Ethiopia: Challenges, Opportunities and the Need for Transformation. Ethiopian Animal Feed Industry Association. Printed by Image Enterprise PLC Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp. 37-44.
Upreti CR, Shrestha BK (2006). Nutrient Contents of Feeds and Fodder in Nepal, Feedstuff and Animal Production in Nepal. Animal Nutrition Division, NARC Kathmandu, Nepal. 
Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA (1991). Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Dairy Science 74:3587-3597.
Walker KP (2007). Productivity of four fodder tree species, their nutritional value and potential role in ruminant production in eastern Botswana. Doctoral thesis, University of Stellenbosch.
Wambugu S, Kirimi L, Opiyo J (2011).Productivity, trends and performance of dairy farming in Kenya. Nairobi: Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy.