The present work evaluated the inhibitor potential of acetylcholinesterase, the preliminary toxicity and determination of active components of different leaf and seed extracts of Parkia platycephala. All extracts were obtained through hot extraction in a closed system (Soxhlet). To obtain the leaf and seed hexanic, methanolic, and ethanolic extracts (LHE, LME, LEE, and SHE, SME, and SEE), sequential extraction was performed on the same plant sample using hexane, methanol, and hydroethanol solution (70%). Preliminary Phytochemical analysis and the characterization by gas chromatography coupled to the mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was performed. The content of phenols total flavonoids and the antioxidant potential was then quantified.The preliminary toxicity against Artemia salina was also evaluated and the potential for acetylcholinesterase inhibition was determined. The presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, phytosterols/triterpenoids and alkaloids were detected in phytochemical analysis. The leaf extracts showed antioxidant potential, LEM (IC50 = 30.19 ± 0.75 μg/ml) and LEE (IC50 = 40.62 ± 0.65 μg/ml). The analysis by GC-MS indicated a diversity of volatile compounds, evidencing urs-12-ene (triterpenoid) and 1,2,3-benzenetriol (phenol) in the leaf extracts, and linoelaidic acid (fatty acid), (Z)-9-octadecenamide, tricycle [18.104.22.168 (7.16)] triacontane,1(22),7(16)-diepoxy-, (Z)-7-hexadecenal (fatty aldehyde) in the seed extracts. The preliminary toxicity analysis demonstrated that the use of P. platyceplaha leave and seeds for medicinal purposes is relatively safe. All the extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase, compared to the physostigmine control, with IC50 values in the range of 9.85 to 15.68 mg/ml. Thus, these data support the use of P. platycephala as a potential therapy for Alzheimer's disease.
Key words: Phytochemistry, antioxidant activity, toxicity, fava-de-bolota, Alzheimer.
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