This study investigated the phytoconstituents in Neem (seed and flower), Jatropha curcas (stem and root bark) and grape (stem bark and leaves) in some selected solvents. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of bioactive compound saponin in all the parts of the three plants in water extract only. Saponin was absent in other solvents used (ethanol, ethyl acetate, propan-2-ol, methanol, n-butanol and acetone). Ethanol, ethyl acetate and methanol were the most promising solvents to extract flavonoids in both the seed and flower of Neem plant. Acetone and ethanol were the most promising solvents to extract flavonoids in the stem bark of J. curcas. In the root bark of J. curcas, acetone and ethyl acetate were the most promising solvents to extract flavonoids. In grape (Citrus paradisi) leaves, ethanol, water and acetone were the most promising solvents to extract flavonoids. In the stem bark of grape, water, ethyl acetate and acetone proved promising as extraction solvents for flavonoids. All the parts of the plants studied were positive for alkaloid in ethanol and acetone extracts. The seed extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) was strongly positive in ethanol only. Terpenoids were detected in ethyl acetate and n-butanol in all the parts of the three plants. Aged flower extract of Neem plant with pale pink colour could be exploited as a novel source of colourant. Volatile oil was not restricted to J. curcas stem and root barks, it was also present in C. paradisi stem and root barks. The nutritional significance, economic and toxicological implications of phytoconstituents analysed in the plants were discussed.
Key words: Phytomedicine, bioactive compounds, natural product, drug discovery, preventive medicine.
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