Report indicates that global death from cardiovascular diseases is more than any other diseases hence research is being intensified to provide scientific data in support of the use of traditional plants for its management. In this study, the efficacy of Amaranthus spinosus on lipid disorder occasioned by dietary regimen supplemented with lard and its role in oxidative stress was compared with vitamin C. Forty adult male rats randomized into 5 groups of 8 each were used. Group 1 was the control, while groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were placed on lard supplemented diet. Leaf extract of A. spinosus was administered to rats in groups 3 while group 4 was co-administered with A. spinosus and vitamin C. Group 5 was administered with vitamin C alone. The extract was administered at a dose of 250 mg/kg while vitamin C was administered at a dose of 10 UI/kg. All administrations were performed orally as a single dose continuously for 28 days. High fat diet increased malondialdehyde concentration but reduced the concentrations of glutathione (GSH) and the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the heart. It also increased plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol but lowered high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration. Although, no significant alterations were observed in the cholesterol and triglyceride levels of the heart, there was a significant increase in the atherogenic indices of plasma. Separate and combined administration of A. spinosus and vitamin C reverses these unfavorable alterations. The effect of separate administration of A. spinosus was also observed in the study to compare effectively with its combined administration with vitamin C. Based on this study, A. spinosus may be useful as a base medicine for the management of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) related disorder.
Key words: Atherogenic index, Amaranthus spinosus, cardiovascular risk, herbal medicine, high-fat diet, lipoprotein.
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