Journal of
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9820
  • DOI: 10.5897/JTEHS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 208

Review

Mycotoxins in animals: Occurrence, effects, prevention and management

Manal M. Zaki1*, S. A. El-Midany2, H. M. Shaheen3 and Laura Rizzi4
1Department of Veterinary Hygiene and Management, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza 11221 Egypt. 2Department of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Kafr El-Sheikh Univ., Egypt. 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine South Valley University, Qena., Egypt. 4Department of Morphophysiology and Animal Production (DIMORFIPA), University of Bologna, 40064, Italy.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 10 November 2011
  •  Published: 31 January 2012

Abstract

Globalization of the trade in agricultural commodities has contributed significantly to the discussion about potential hazards involved and has increased in particular the awareness of mycotoxins. Safety awareness in food and feed production has also risen due to the simple fact that methods for testing residues and undesirable substances have become noticeably more sophisticated and more available at all points of the supply chain. Mycotoxins comprise of a family of fungal toxins, many of which have been implicated as chemical progenitors of toxicity in man and animals. There are four classes of mycotoxins of major concern namely aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxins, and fumonisins. Formation of mycotoxins varied betweenspecies as well as within a given species. A variety of physical, chemical, and biological methods to counteract the mycotoxin problem have been reported, but large-scale, practical, and cost-effective methods for detoxifying mycotoxin-containing feedstuffs are currently not available. Detoxification strategies for the contaminated foods and feeds should be done to reduce or eliminate the adverse actions of mycotoxin to improve food safety and prevent economic losses. The most recent approach to the problem has been the addition to the animal's diet of nonnutritive sorbents that sequester mycotoxins, reduce their gastrointestinal absorption and avoiding their toxic effects on livestock and toxin carryover into animal products. This review comments on the potential hazards of several mycotoxins together with prevention strategy for fungal and mycotoxin contamination.

 

Key words: Mycotoxinsdetoxification, aflatoxins, zearalenone, ochratoxins, prevention.