Journal of
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences

  • Abbreviation: J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9820
  • DOI: 10.5897/JTEHS
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 208

Full Length Research Paper

Toxicity of Aluminum sulphate (alum) to Nubian goats

Medani A. B.1, El Badwi S. M. A.2* and Amin A. E.2
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Khartoum College of Medical Sciences, Sudan. 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 04 May 2011
  •  Published: 31 July 2011

Abstract

This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effect of Aluminum sulphate (alum). Nine Nubian goat kids were divided into 3 groups, each of three goats. Group 1 animals were the undosed controls. Test groups were given alum at dose rates of 1 and 20% respectively for groups 2 and 3 for a period of 10 weeks after an adaptation period of two weeks during which the animals were X kept under ideal experimental conditions. Clinical signs were closely observed with postmortem and histopathological examinations. Chemical investigations included enzymatic activities of ALP, AST, CK, ALT and LDH and metabolic changes of albumin, urea, total protein, cholesterol, bilirubin, glucose and creatinine were detected. Fluctuations in electrolyte levels of Mg, Fe, Na, K, Ca and P were monitored together with hematological changes in Hb, PCV, RBCs and WBCs. Mortalities occurred to variable degrees irrespective to the dose level. On alum challenge, the test species showed clinical signs of low voice, inappitence, dullness, whitish salivation, watery diarrhea and also recumbency. On atomic absorption only the lungs kept residual alum, while the livers washed- out the substance, may be via bile. Notably oral dosing with alum caused changes consisted of congested liver with white spots, stiff-greenish lungs and inflammed empty intestines. The un-dosed group 1 goats showed a normal picture. On histopathology, alum-dosed group of goats showed necrosis in the cortex and medulla of the kidney in one group member, emphysema in the lungs and necrosis in the hepatocytes and congestion in the liver in all group members. On evaluation of the previous results, alum was considered toxic to Nubian goat kids at all tried dose rates. Practical implications of the results were highlighted as suggestions for future work were put forward.

 

Key words: Toxicity, alum, Nubian goats, drinking water.