Bovine coccidiosis is a protozoan infection caused by different species of Eimeria which has a worldwide distribution. The disease which mainly affects calves belongs to large herd size where hygiene is not well managed and is associated with poor body condition. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2016 to April 2017 to determine the prevalence of bovine coccidiosis and identify the associated risk factors in semi intensive and extensive dairy farms in and around Holeta town, Finfine Zuria Liyu Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Fecal samples were randomly collected from three hundred and eighty four calves belonging to dairy farms and examined for the presence of the oocyts of Eimeria by floatation technique using saline solution. The study revealed that the overall prevalence of coccidiosis was 26.04%. The risk factors considered were age, sex, breed, production system, herd size, fecal consistency, body condition and hygienic status of the house. The prevalence of coccidiosis was higher within calves in poor hygienic (58.6%) dairy farms than calves from better hygienic farms (14.6%). There was also significant difference (P<0.05) in the prevalence of coccidiosis between different herd sizes with higher prevalence in herd size >10 animals (39.3%). The highest prevalence of coccidiosis was recorded in calves with diarrheic faeces (91.7%) than calves with soft, constipated and normal fecal consistency (P<0.05). Appropriate monitoring and control of the disease is advisable in the study farms.
Key words: Calf, coccidiosis, dairy farms, Eimeria, Holeta, prevalence.
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