Scientific Research and Essays

  • Abbreviation: Sci. Res. Essays
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1992-2248
  • DOI: 10.5897/SRE
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2748

Full Length Research Paper

Nutritional composition, functional properties and sensory evaluation of breads based on blends of ‘orarudi’ (Vigna sp) and wheat flour

Onoja, U. S.
  • Onoja, U. S.
  • Department of Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu Sate, Nigeria.
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Akubor, P. I.
  • Akubor, P. I.
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu Sate, Nigeria.
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Njoku Ivoke
  • Njoku Ivoke
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu Sate, Nigeria.
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Atama, C. I
  • Atama, C. I
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu Sate, Nigeria.
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Onyishi, G. C.
  • Onyishi, G. C.
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu Sate, Nigeria.
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Ekeh, F. N.
  • Ekeh, F. N.
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu Sate, Nigeria.
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Eyo, J. E.
  • Eyo, J. E.
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu Sate, Nigeria.
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Ejere, V. C.
  • Ejere, V. C.
  • Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu Sate, Nigeria.
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  •  Received: 28 August 2014
  •  Accepted: 11 November 2014
  •  Published: 30 December 2014

Abstract

The proximate composition, functional and physical properties, as well as sensory evaluation of breads based on blends of wheat and ‘orarudi’ (Vigna sp) flour were investigated. Batches of ‘orarudi’ (Vigna sp) were separately put in a container and subjected to natural lactic acid fermentation in deionized water in a ratio of 1:3 (w/v) at 28 ± 2°C for 24 h. The fermented samples were manually dehulled and the cotyledons dried at 55 ± 2°C in a drought  air oven, hammer milled into flour (500 µm mesh screen) and stored in a refrigerator (5 ± 2°C). The blends were formulated thus, the ‘orarudi’ flour (ORF) substituted 5, 10, 15, and 20% wheat flour (WF). The 100% WF served as the control. The parameters investigated were evaluated using standard methods. The data obtained were statistically analyzed. The results showed that fermentation and food supplementation enhanced both the proximate, minerals and vitamin contents of the experimental breads. The physical parameters indicated that fermentation and type of supplements had negative effect on the test breads relative to the control. The results revealed that the experimental breads had higher nutrient quality than the 100% wheat bread, probably due .to food-to-food fortification/supplementation.
 
Key words: Nutritional composition, functional properties, breads, composites, fermentation,   nutrient quality.