Journal of
Agricultural Extension and Rural Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2170
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAERD
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 486

JAERD Articles

Proximate analysis of Sphenostylis stenocarpa and Voadzeia subterranean consumed in South –Eastern Nigeria

February 2012

Proximate analyses of two traditional grain legumes consumed in Eastern Nigeria- Bambara groundnut (Voadzeia subterranean) and African yam beans (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) were carried out. Bambara groundnut was found to contain 2.86±0.02% moisture, 32.40±0.02% protein, 7.35± 0.02% fat, 5.78±0.02% ash, 2.68±0.02% crude fiber and 51.78±0.02% total carbohydrates. African yam...

Author(s): S. Nwodo Chinedu  and C. Obinna Nwinyi

Challenges and prospects of privatization of agricultural extension service delivery in Nigeria

February 2012

Privatization of extension service delivery has been considered lately as the only option to remedy the decline in both the funding and overall organization and administration of extension due to so many challenges facing effectiveness of publicly funded extension delivery, particularly since the withdrawal of the World Bank sponsorship of agricultural programmes in Nigeria. The adoption of privatization of extension in...

Author(s): Adejo, P. E., Okwu, O. J. and Ibrahim, M. K.

Condom use for preventing HIV/AIDS among plantation workers in the Southwest Region of Cameroon

February 2012

A survey was carried out among plantation workers in the Southwest Region of Cameroon to assess condom use as well as its association with workers’ personal characteristics. Questionnaire/structured interview schedule was used to collect data by random sampling technique. Focus group discussion was also employed. 354 respondents were used for the study. Majority of the respondents (63% in CDC, 63% in Pamol and 80%...

Author(s): . M. Chah, E. M. Igbokwe and A. E. Agwu

Cyber extension as a communications media for vegetable farmer empowerment

February 2012

Cyber extension is a communication method of agricultural innovation by using new communication media that integrate information and communication technologies (ICTs) in agricultural development. The research was conducted in West Java (the accessibility of cyber extension independently) and East Java (the accessibility of cyber extension dependently), Indonesia, on July 2010 to January 2011. Data used in this study...

Author(s): Retno S. H. Mulyandari, Sumardjo, Nurmala K. Pandjaitan and Djuara P. Lubis

Impact of Olam organisation extension programme on socio-economic life of cocoa farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria

February 2012

The study was undertaken to assess the impact of Olam organization extension programmes on socio-economic life of cocoa farmers in Ondo state, Nigeria. Data were collected from 60 respondents made up of 30 Olam farmers and 30 non-Olam farmers through the use of structured interview schedule. Multistage random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents.  Data were analyzed using mean statistics, standard...

Author(s): Akinnagbe O. M and Ajayi A. R

Oviposition of Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabricius on a wild weed, Coccinia grandis Linnaeus (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae)

February 2012

The 28 spotted ladybeetle, Epilachna vigintioctopunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Fabricius is a stern pest of solanceous crops all over the world. An experiment was conducted to study oviposition as well as adult emergence of this species of ladybird when fed on the leaves of a weed, Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitales: Cucurbitaceae). Egg laying was noticed when the adults were fed on the leaves of...

Author(s): Navodita Maurice and Ashwani Kumar

Discounting messages in agricultural extension communication

February 2012

Against the background of the symbiotic relationship among the agricultural research, linking and practitioner sub-systems, this paper examined a socio-psychological factor that tends to block communication between researchers, extensionists and farmers. This involved content-analyzing the proceedings of the 42nd Annual Conference of Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN) to identify discounting or negative messages in...

Author(s): G. E. Ifenkwe

Noise mitigation for effective agricultural extension print message delivery and utilization

February 2012

Communication is essential to human life. Apart from interpersonal media that provide opportunities for face-to-face interaction, the mass media (print or electronic) help communicators to reach a large number of persons simultaneously. For printed educational materials to be potent in communication, they must be noise-free. This paper reviewed the phenomenon of noise as barrier to communication and content-analyzed...

Author(s): G. E. Ifenkwe and F. Ikpekaogu

Analysis of the effect of landslides on the microenvironment in Iran: A case study of Lityan Basin

January 2012

The Latian basin is situated at the north east of Iran, and has a social and economical importance for this city and its people. This territory, due to its natural conditions, has suffered from natural disasters including earthquakes, floods and land mass movements, even in recent centuries. The combination of these natural factors as the basic cause, unintelligent human intervention as an intensifying enforcer, has...

Author(s): Zahra Arzjani, Farideh Asadian and Maryam Varavipour

Crop water requirements in selective wetland areas, West Suez Canal, Egypt

January 2012

The present research aims to generate a geometrical corrected physiographic map with a scale (1:50,000) and calculating crop water requirements for the suitable crops in this area. To fulfill these requirements, eight soil profiles were chosen to represent the different mapping units. Morphological description was carried out and soil samples were collected for the physical and chemical analyses. Based on satellite ETM+...

Author(s): W. A. Abdel Kawy, Abdel-Aziz Belal and Kh. M. Darwish

Demonstration of maize and noug cake mixture supplementation for women focused small scale sheep fattening in Yilmana Denssa District

January 2012

The study was conducted at Yilmana Denssa district where there is huge population of sheep and traditional sheep fattening is practiced. Six women famers were participating for the trail. Each woman was supposed to purchase three yearling male rams. A total of 18 yearling Washera sheep were used for this research. Experimented sheep were feeding 400 g concentrate /head/day, which is composed of 24.75% maize, 74.25%...

Author(s): Habtemariam Assefa, Simegnew Tamir, Shigdaf Mekuriaw and Wude Tsega

Performance of smallholder dairy farmers’ groups in the east and west central regions of Bhutan: Members’ perspective

January 2012

Collective action through farmers’ groups is increasingly being recognized as a positive force for rural development in Bhutan. The present study describes an assessment of the performance of smallholder dairy farmers’ groups (N=7) in the west and east central regions of Bhutan. The data were collected from 176 respondents through a structured questionnaire survey supplemented by open participatory group...

Author(s): Thubten Sonam and Niwat Martwanna

Gender role in peri urban dairy production system of Ambo town, Ethiopia

December 2011

Though dairy is a common farming enterprise and income-generating activity in Ambo town, no systematic study has been undertaken to identify the gender role in dairy production. The objectives of the study were to identify gender role in dairy activities; and to analysis gender participation in production and marketing of dairy products. It was found that women are mainly responsible for barn cleaning, milk selling,...

Author(s): Workneh Abebe and Ulfina Galmesa

Prevalence of nematode parasites in Sheep of Ladakh - India

December 2011

Nematode parasite infections of sheep are a major problem throughout the world and are responsible for economic losses in a variety of ways. In the present study an attempt was made to find out the various nematode parasites and their prevalence infesting the sheep of Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir State in India. A total of 313 sheep of either sex and of different age groups belonging to different areas of Ladakh...

Author(s): J. A. Kuchai, M. Z. Chishti, Manal M. Zaki, Javid Ahmad, Muzaffar Rasool, S. A. Dar and Hidayatullah Tak

Validation of socio-economic status indicators for heads of farm families in Delta North agricultural zone, Delta State, Nigeria

November 2011

The specific objectives were to collate a universe of socio-economic status indicators; carry out item analysis to validate socio-economic status indicators; select valid socio-economic status indicators for heads of farm families; and discuss the sociological implication of the valid items. Stratified and simple random sampling designs were used in selecting the towns and villages. Twelve percent...

Author(s): B. O. Ovwigho

Neonectria-canker on trees in Norway

November 2011

Neonectria spp. have been found on a number of tree species in Norway. Neonectria ditissimais commonly detected from diseased trees in apple orchards and a N. ditissima–like species has caused an epidemic on white fir (Abies concolor). In Norway, Neonectria spp. attack numerous plant species including true fir (Abies spp.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus), alder (Alnus...

Author(s): Venche Talgø, May Bente Brurberg and Arne Stensvand

Fungal and bacterial diseases on horse chestnut in Norway

November 2011

Horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) is mainly grown in gardens, public parks and alleys in Norway. It has been known as a tree with no disease problems, but since 2006, a number of new diseases have been detected (leaf blotch, powdery mildew, anthracnose, and bleeding canker). These new diseases have most likely entered the country by imported horse chestnut transplants. The diseases mentioned here may...

Author(s): Venche Talgø, Juliana Irina Spies Perminow, Arild Sletten, May Bente Brurberg, Maria Luz Herrero, Gunn Mari Strømeng and Arne Stensvand

The model of family empowerment program for community development in West Java, Indonesia

October 2011

Family empowerment is very important, as through empowerment programs the information and knowledge which are key determinants of progress of a society, may be passed on to the next generation. Community education, especially community empowerment which is considered a national investment, is expected to increase human skills, and knowledge of the society. It means that the entire population of Indonesia, regardless of...

Author(s): Pudji Muljono

Determinants of flock size in broiler production in Kaduna State of Nigeria

October 2011

This study was conducted to estimate the determinants of flock size in broiler production in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaire and interview schedules were used to collect data from 120 broiler producers randomly selected from 10 purposively selected villages from the study area based on large number of producers in the area. The data were analyzed using frequency distribution and multiple regression...

Author(s): Emaikwu K. K., Chikwendu D. O. and Sani A. S.

Adoption behaviour of the farmers of Goalpara district of India towards aquaculture technology

October 2011

A study was conducted during 2009 to 2010 to investigate the adoption behaviour of the fish growers towards the innovations in aquaculture technology in Goalpara district of Assam. The district produces 5,347 tonnes of fish per annum against its biophysical potential of 40,969.25 tonnes. Seven critical recommended practices of pond management were selected to study the extent of adoption and correlated with...

Author(s): Uttam Kumar Baruah, Jyotish Barman and Benzamin Kaman

Socio-economic characteristics influencing farm household participation in gandu system in Charanchi Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria

October 2011

The study aims at determining the socio-economic characteristics influencing farm household participation in gandu system. The data for this study were obtained by the use of structured interview schedule. A total sample size of 140 households was interviewed consisting of 70gandu and 70 non-gandu participants. Descriptive statistics and logit regression model were used to...

Author(s): Yusuf, H. A., Omokore, D. F. , Akinola, M. O. and Omolehin, R. A.

Seed handling system and its implications on seed quality in South western Nigeria

September 2011

There are several operations between seed production and distribution. This study analysed the prevailing situation surrounding seed business and considered its implication on seed quality in Southwestern Nigeria. Surveys were conducted in 2009 on seed marketers and public Institutions handling seeds within the zone using structured questionnaires. Data were collected on socio-economics, seed procurement, handling and...

Author(s): J. A.  Adetumbi, J. O. Saka and B. F. Fato

Factors determining fish hatchery operations in Ogun State, Nigeria

September 2011

The study was carried out to examine the factors determining fish hatchery operations in the four agricultural extension zones (Abeokuta, Ijebu-Ode, Ikenne and Ilaro) of Ogun state. One hundred and twenty fish hatchery operators were selected out of three hundred and eighty eight registered hatcheries using multi-stage sampling techniques and structured interview guides to elicit information from the fish breeders. The...

Author(s): Olaoye O. J, Idowu A. A, Omoyinmi G. A. K, Ezeri G. N. O  and Oke A. O

Analysis of paddy-field consolidation effects for Iranian rice farmers

September 2011

The most important targets of land consolidation projects are reducing expense generation and increasing rice farmers' income. This article analyzes land-consolidation effects from the viewpoint of Iranian rice farmers. The research was conducted in the form of a survey study. The data for this research was collected from 176 farmers cultivating traditional rice fields and 188 farmers participating in a...

Author(s): Ebrahimi Mohammad Sadegh, Kalantri Khalil, Asadi Ali and Mohammadi Davoud

Utilization of soyabean products by farm-families in Abia State, Nigeria

September 2011

Soyabean has been nicknamed “the poor man’s meat” because it contains 40.3% protein, 20% oil and 91.9% total digestible nutrient. This study assessed farmers’ awareness, knowledge of preparation and rate of utilization of selected soyabean products. Multistage sampling method was employed to select a sample of 137 farm-families who responded to a 45-item structured interview schedule used for...

Author(s): S.O. Olatunji  A. C. Agumagu and O. M. Adesope

Ratification of the Ramsar convention and sustainable wetlands management: Situation analysis of the Kilombero Valley wetlands in Tanzania

September 2011

In recent years, the Kilombero Valley wetlands in Tanzania was designated and added to the Ramsar convention’s list in an attempt to improve its social, economic and environmental values.  This study, carried out in selected sites within the Kilombero Valley wetlands, uses a participatory approach to analyze the existing situation and to reflect upon the quest for sustainable management as defined by Ramsar...

Author(s): Felister Mombo, Stijn Speelman⊃, Guido Van Huylenbroeck, Joseph Hella, Munishi Pantaleo   and Stein Moe

Assessment of rural poultry extension services in Oshimili North Local Government Area, Delta State, Nigeria

September 2011

The study assessed rural poultry extension services in Oshimili North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using interview schedule with 120 household poultry rearers that were selected randomly from four communities in the local government area. Data were analyzed using frequency counts, percentages, Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) and analysis of variance (ANOVA)....

Author(s): Margaret Joke Koyenikan

Interactive methods to educate and engage poultry producers on the importance of practicing on-farm biosecurity

August 2011

Biosecurity is the key within the poultry industry in preventing the spread of diseases and infections.  A “biosecurity culture” is needed to increase the adoption of farm biosecurity practices because financial incentives are not always apparent. The objective of this project was to provide innovative and participatory education and extension to industry leaders that would enable them to act as...

Author(s): Danielle Julien and Sarah Thomson

Measuring factors that can influence cattle supply response to the market in Namibia: Case study from Omaheke communal farmers

August 2011

The study examined the factors that can influence the supply of cattle to the market in Namibia, with a specific focus on four communal areas of the Omaheke Region. A total of 100 cattle farmers were interviewed and the weighted least square (WLS) model was applied to analyse the data. The study found that the number of cattle owned, cost of production inputs, accessibility to market information,...

Author(s): Hangara G. N., Teweldemedhin M. Y. and Groenewald I. B.

Training needs assessment of Agricultural Extension Officers in Animal Husbandry Department of Malang Regency, East Java-Indonesia

August 2011

The main objective of this research project is to identify the training needs of Agricultural Extension Officers in the Animal Husbandry Department of Malang Regency. The research questions are: (1) what are the present knowledge and skills of Agricultural Extension Officers in the Animal Husbandry Extension Department in Malang Regency, (2) what knowledge and skills are needed for Agricultural Extension Officers, and...

Author(s): Siti Azizah

Effect of community participation on sustainability of rural water projects in Delta Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

July 2011

This study was conducted to assess the effect of community participation on sustainability of rural water projects in Delta Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria. The study was concentrated in the rural settlements where water projects were executed. The community citizens were rarely often or always involved in the various stages of the projects as the community development committees’ executives...

Author(s): Ofuoku A. U.

Networks among agricultural stakeholders in the Southwestern Highlands of Uganda

July 2011

The aim of this study was to explore the interactions that exist among agricultural stakeholders in the southwestern highlands of Uganda as a way of identifying opportunities and gaps for operation of Innovation Platforms (IPs) under the proof of concept of Integrated Agricultural Research for Development (IAR4D) research project. The specific objectives were to (i) characterize the agricultural stakeholders in the...

Author(s): Fungo B., Clark L., Tenywa M. M., Tukahirwa J., Kamugisha R., Birachi E., Wanjiku C., Bizoza A. R., Wimba B., Pali P., Adewale A. and Olowole F.

Harvesting surface rainwater – purification using Moringa oleifera seed extracts and aluminum sulfate

June 2011

Ground water harvesting is a method of collecting surface runoff from a catchment’s area and storing it in surface reservoirs. The water harvested is usually contaminated and turbid. Methods used to purify water include filtration, sedimentation, boiling and chlorination. This project was carried out in Nyatike district, Western Kenya where water is scarce and water-borne diseases such as cholera, typhoid and...

Author(s): Arama Peter Futi , Wagai Samuel Otieno , Ogur Joseph Acholla , Walter Atieno Otieno ,  Owido Seth Ochieng and Mahagayu Clerkson Mukisira

Herd composition and characteristics of dairy production in Bishoftu Town, Ethiopia

June 2011

A cross sectional study was done to assess the herd composition and characteristics of dairy production in Bishoftu Town using a well structured questionnaire. The farms were categorized the production levels into small (<10 animals), medium (10 to 50 animals) and large (>50 animals) farms based on the number of animals. Significant variation (P=0.000) in the age and purpose related herd composition ration of...

Author(s): Mulisa Megersa, Ashenafi Feyisa, Anteneh Wondimu and Tariku Jibat

Identification and documentation of indigenous knowledge of beekeeping practices in selected districts of Ethiopia

May 2011

The Ethiopian farmers have been engaging in beekeeping as a sideline activity since 3500 to 3000 BC over centuries; it is presumed that beekeepers have developed indigenous knowledge through their accumulated experiences, which is valuable resource for development. The study was undertaken to identify, record and document the indigenous knowledge of the beekeepers and it was conducted in Central Ethiopia by selecting...

Author(s): Workneh Abebe

Extension communication channels’ usage and preference by farmers in Benue State, Nigeria

May 2011

The study assessed farmers’ use and preference of extension communication channels in Benue State, Nigeria. A sample of 316 farmers was selected through a stratified random sampling technique and interview schedule was used in eliciting information from them. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analyses. Interpersonal communication channels were generally found to be more available,...

Author(s): Oto Jacob Okwu and Shimayohol Daudu

Effective extension methods for increased food production in Kakamega District

May 2011

Despite the importance of agriculture to Kenya's economy, the Kenya government's budgetary allocation to the sector has declined over the years. This resulted in the sector being resource constrained with a high farmer to staff ratio, hence the need for extension methods that can effectively reach more clients at the lowest cost. This paper reviews effective extension methods which have the least constraints and...

Author(s): Adijah M. Ali-Olubandwa, N. J. Kathuri, Timothy E. O. Wesonga

A method for managing dissolved oxygen concentration during live hauling of channel catfish

April 2011

After experiencing difficulty in managing dissolved oxygen levels on several live hauls, a method has been developed for estimating the oxygen flow rate needed to sustain live channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus during transport. The mathematical model described in this paper provides aquaculturists, fish farmers, and fish haulers with an analytical method for estimating the oxygen flow rate needed to sustain...


Economic analysis of plantain processing industry in Akure south local government of Ondo State

April 2011

This study examined the economics of plantain processing industries in Akure South Local Government of Ondo State of Nigeria for the purpose of assessing socio-economic characteristics of plantain processors, determining the cost and return of the plantain industries, the factors that affect level of profitability and highlight the problems encountered in the industry. The data was collected by use of structured...


The role of extension in agricultural adaptation to climate change in Enugu State, Nigeria

March 2011

The clear evidence that climate change is already a reality calls for actions not just to slow down the process or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases (mitigation) but also to assist those affected or threatened already to adjust in natural and human systems to a new or changing environment (adaptation). The paper examined the role of extension in agricultural adaptation to climate change in Enugu State. A multi-stage...

Author(s): Nicholas Ozor and Nnaji Cynthia

Survey on women access to agricultural extension services at selected districts of Mid Rift Valley of Ethiopia

March 2011

The study was conducted at administrative Zone of Oromia Region in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia namely; Dugda, Boset, Ada’a and Fentale districts during 2009 with two objectives: Assessing women farmers  access to agricultural extension services and Identifying problems constraining women farmers’ participation in agricultural extension package program. The district was selected...

Author(s): Gurmesa Umeta, Felekech Lemecha and Taha Mume

Changing cropping patterns: Food grains and non-food grains in Uzbekistan

March 2011

The new agricultural technology and conserving of state farms into individual and small house hold plots (sharkets and dekhans) has bought changes in the traditional cropping pattern in Uzbekistan, particularly in the two food crops - wheat and rice. During the period of 1991 to 1995 there were no changes in the cropping pattern. But from 1996 to 2001, the increase in area was marginal in the two food crops, but the...

Author(s): Mohammad Maqbool Bhat

Preliminary studies on water characteristics and bacterial population in high yield Kajola fish ponds

March 2011

Preliminary studies were carried out on water characteristics and bacterial population in high yield Kajola Fish Pond, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Three fish ponds stocked with Clarias gariepinus were examined for pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, total solid, total hardness, un-ionized ammonia, phosphite-phosphorous, total inorganic carbon, nitrite-nitrogen, carbon...

Author(s): Fafioye, O. O.

Effects of temperature and varieties on essential oil content and quantity features of chamomile

February 2011

In this study, interactive affects of temperature and chamomile varieties on essential oil contentin Iran were studied. The experiment was carried out in completely randomized block design with three replicates. Certain factors including chamomile varieties (‏‎Germania, Gorel andBodegold) and temperature (12, 15, 20 and 25°C) during seedling stage till planting. We noticed that...

Author(s): Ahmad Ebrahimi, Payam Moaveni, Alireza Taghian dashtbozorg and Hossein Aliabadi Farahani

Role of rural youth in agricultural and rural development: A self perceived case study of Okara District, Punjab, Pakistan

February 2011

Rural youth in Pakistan play very important role in the political, economic and social development of the country. Many Rural Youth Organizations such as Chand tara, Boy Scouting, Girl Guide Movement, Farm Guide Movement and Farm Girl Guide were introduced in Pakistan. But in-spite of all these efforts, Pakistan had no formal system for organizing and training a bulk quantity of its Rural Youth. And it is time to create...

Author(s): Tahir Munir Butt, Muhammad Zakaria Yousuf Hassan, Shahbaz Talib Sahi, Muhammad Atiq, Abdual Jabbar, Irfan Ahmad, Muhammad Luqman and Wasif Shafique

Dimension of food security in a selected state- Uttar Pradesh

February 2011

Development agencies regard the concept of household food security-often defined as "access for all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life"-as a guiding principle for designing interventions in rural areas because poverty is the major determinant of food insecurity and achievement of food security is the goal of development. It is a known fact that the poor do not have adequate access...

Author(s): Rukhsana

Up-scaling napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) production using “Tumbukiza” method in smallholder farming systems in Northwestern Kenya

January 2011

Low and declining soil fertility and inadequate livestock feeds are major constraints limiting dairy productivity in smallholder farming systems in North-western Kenya.  Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) is the most popular fodder used by dairy farmers. The farmer field school (FFS) and farmer participatory research (FPR) approaches were used to up-scale ‘tumbukiza’, a...

Author(s): Elkana M. Nyambati, Charles M. Lusweti, Francis N. Muyekho and Joseph G. Mureithi

Beekeeping sub sector challenges and constraints in Atsbi Wemberta District of eastern zone, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

January 2011

Though beekeeping is a common farming enterprise and income generating activity in Atsbi Wemberta, and promotional efforts were made to improve it, no systematic study has been undertaken to evaluate the promotional efforts and people’s response to it. The objectives of the study were to identify beekeeping sub sector constraints; and to assess perception of beekeepers towards improved beekeeping practices....

Author(s): Workneh Abebe and Ranjitha Puskur

An assessment of agricultural extension services in irrigation schemes under RBDAs’ control in Nigeria: The case of Kano River irrigation projec

January 2011

The National Irrigation Policy is based on boosting domestic agricultural production by using irrigation since rain fed production alone cannot meet demand. Achieving the goal of increasing agricultural production through harnessing of national irrigation potentials will depend on many factors; among which extension is likely to be one of the most important. For this purpose, this paper attempts to evaluate the...

Author(s): A. A. Ammani, B. M. Sani, H. N. Kura and Y. Hussaini

Developing a modified delta N method for training needs assessment

December 2010

This paper briefly reviewed different methods/techniques for training needs assessment, particularly, Delta N method. It explained Delta N, its computation, highlighted its drawbacks and, more importantly, proposed a modified Delta N method. The paper, further, presented empirical findings of actual data gathered to assess training needs for extension personnel in the area of Information Communication Technology (ICT)...

Author(s): Bahgat M. Abdel-Maksoud

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