African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12269

Full Length Research Paper

Characterization of the dominant microorganisms responsible for the fermentation of dehulled maize grains into nsiho in Ghana

Theophilus Annan
  • Theophilus Annan
  • Food Research Institute,Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,P.O. Box M.20,Accra, Ghana.
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Mary Obodai
  • Mary Obodai
  • Food Research Institute,Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,P.O. Box M.20,Accra, Ghana.
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George Anyebuno
  • George Anyebuno
  • Food Research Institute,Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,P.O. Box M.20,Accra, Ghana.
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Kwaku Tano-Debrah
  • Kwaku Tano-Debrah
  • Department of Nutrition and Food Science,University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
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Wisdom Kofi Amoa-Awua*
  • Wisdom Kofi Amoa-Awua*
  • Food Research Institute,Council for Scientific and Industrial Research,P.O. Box M.20,Accra, Ghana.
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  •  Received: 27 August 2014
  •  Accepted: 22 April 2015
  •  Published: 13 May 2015

Abstract

Nsiho (white kenkey) is a type of kenkey, a sour stiff dumpling, produced from fermented maize meal in Ghana. The dominant microorganisms responsible for the fermentation of nsiho were characterized by analysing samples from four traditional production sites at Anum in the Eastern Region of Ghana. During 48 h of steeping dehulled maize grains, the pH values decreased from 6.05 to 5.93 to 3.59 to 3.55, whilst titratable acidity increased from 0.02 to 0.03 to 0.27 to 0.32%. In the subsequent 12 h dough fermentation, the pH decreased from 6.02 to 5.80 to 3.52 to 3.46, whilst titratable acidity increased from 0.25 to 0.27 to 0.35 to 0.38%. The lactic acid bacteria population increased by 2 to 5 log units to concentrations of 107  to 108 CFU/ml during steeping and by 2 to 3 log units from 105 to 106 CFU/g to 108 to 109 CFU/g during dough fermentation. Yeasts counts increased by 3 to 4 log units during steeping and by 2 to 4 log units during dough fermentation. The most frequently isolated lactic acid bacteria responsible for nsiho fermentation were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (47.1%), Lactobacillus brevis (25%), Lactobacillus plantarum (14.42%), Pediococcus pentosaceus (8.65%) and Pediococcus acidilactici, (4.8%). The dominant yeasts species were Saccharyomyces cerevisiae (47.6%), Candida krusei (29.1%), Debaryomyces spp., (15%) and Trichosporon spp., (8.3%). This is the first study to report on the micororganisms involved in nsiho fermentation.
 
Key words: Nsiho, dehulled maize, kenkey, lactic acid bacteria, indigenous African fermented foods.