African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12218

Table of Content: 16 May 2008; 7(10)

May 2008

The status and trends in food, industrial and environmental biotechnology research in Zimbabwe

  Biotechnology offers industrial and environmental solutions through the use of living cells and or their products to provide goods and services. This paper reviews for the first time the status and trends in industrial and environmental biotechnology research in Zimbabwe for the past 25 years. An attempt is made to pinpoint significant research gaps, and the applications of the research in critically...

Author(s): Wilson Parawira

May 2008

Phytochemical evaluation and antibacterial profile of Treculia africana Decne bark extract on gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens

  Treculia africana Decne (Fam. Moraceae) is a highly valued economic plant, as well as an important medicinal plant widely used in the traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments of both microbial and non-microbial origins. It was, therefore, investigated for activity in vitro on pathogenic bacterial isolates ofgastrointestinal tract. Fresh plant materials were collected...

Author(s): S. O. Ogbonnia, N. V. Enwuru, E. U. Onyemenem, G. A. Oyedele and C. A. Enwuru

May 2008

Incidence of bacteraemia following teeth extraction at the dental clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin city, Nigeria

  170 patients attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, were screened bacteriologically, to determine the prevalence of bacteraemia following dental extraction procedures. 5 ml of blood was collected from each patient before and after the extraction. Post-operative bacteraemia occurred in 55 (32.4%) of the 170 patients screened. ...

Author(s): Enabulele, O. I., Aluyi, H. S. A, and Omokao, O.

May 2008

The antibacterial potentials of Nauclea latifolia

  Herbal medicine is readily available in diverse African vegetation with the potentials of introducing new templates into medicine worldwide. Evaluating plants from the traditional African system of medicine provides us with clues on how these plants can be used in the treatment of diseases. In vitro effect of Nauclea latifolia extract in hot water, cold water, petroleum ether and...

Author(s): Okwori, A. E. J., Okeke, C. I., Uzoechina, A., Etukudoh, N. S., Amali, M. N., Adetunji, J. A. and Olabode, A. O.

May 2008

Haemorrheologic and fibrinolytic activities in diabetics resident in Calabar, Cross-River State, Nigeria

  Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem that results in significant morbidity and mortality from such complications as neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease and macrovascular disease. Many of the previous haemostatic studies in diabetic Nigerians focused on platelet count and activity with scanty information on haemorrheologic and fibrinolytic activities. A total of 50 diabetic subjects aged between 35...

Author(s): Edem, M. S., Emeribe, A. O. and  Akpotuzor, J. O.

May 2008

Electrolyte profiles in Nigerian patients with essential hypertension

  Information is inadequate on the serum and urine electrolyte profiles in Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension. We, therefore, measured the levels of Na+, K+ and Cl- in 40 adult Nigerians with untreated uncomplicated mild to moderate hypertension and compared these values with those obtained from age and sex-matched normotensives. Electrolytes were measured using ion-selective...

Author(s): Godfrey B. S. Iyalomhe, Eric K. I. Omogbai, Raymond I. Ozolua, Folorunso L. Dada and Osigbemhe O. B. Iyalomhe

May 2008

Ultrastructure of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibers of alloxan-diabetic rats

  The diabetic effects of alloxan (type I diabetes mellitus) were investigated in 40 Wistar albino rats (18 controls and 22 diabetics). Alloxan in sterile physiological saline was injected into the animals intravenously. The ultrastructure of type IIa, type IIb and type I fibers in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of normal and alloxan diabetic rats was studied. In diabetic animals, the mitochondria of...

Author(s): Suna Cebesoy, Nesrin Özsoy and Nursel Gül

May 2008

Antibacterial activity of Ficus capensis

  The leaves and stem bark of Ficus capensis were investigated for antibacterial activity against some selected organisms at a concentration of 2000 µg/ml using agar diffusion method. The crude leaf extract inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli and Shigella sp. but no activity against Salmonella typhi. The stem bark extracts also had activity against E....

Author(s): Oyeleke, S. B., Dauda, B. E. N. and Boye, O. A.

May 2008

Effect of water pollution on expression of immune response genes of Solea aegyptiaca in Lake Qarun

  This research was aimed to study quality of water in Lake Qarun and effects of pollution on expression of immune genes in Egyptian sole (Solea aegyptiaca) fish. The study was carried out from August 2006 to the end of April 2007. The water samples were collected from different locations of Lake Qarun at Al-Oberge within an area of 200 to 1500 meter from the shore. The samples were subjected to different...

Author(s): Fagr Kh. Ali, Saber A. El-Shafai, Farag A. Samhan, Wagdy K.B. Khalil

May 2008

Genetic relationships among West African okra (Abelmoschus caillei) and Asian genotypes (Abelmoschus esculentus) using RAPD

  Ninety-three accessions of okra which comprises of 50 West African genotypes (Abelmoschus caillei) and 43 Asian genotypes (A. esculentus) were assessed for genetic distinctiveness and relationships using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The molecular analysis showed that all the thirteen primers used revealed clear distinction between the two genotypes. There were more diversity among the Asian...

Author(s): Sunday E. Aladele, O. J. Ariyo and Robert de Lapena

May 2008

In vitro germination and structure of hard seed testa of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L.

  Scarified and non-scarified seeds of natural tetraploid Trifolium pratense L. were germinated on in vitro and ex vitro germination media. The medium producing the best outcome was determined and germination media were compared. Additionally, testa of normal and hard seeds were examined. The media producing the best outcomes in both seed groups (scarified and non-scarified) were...

Author(s): H. Çölgeçen, H. N. Büyükkartal and M. C. Toker

May 2008

Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from gut of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus)

  Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver is one of the insects that attack date palm trees directly and cause its death. This infection poses serious economical consequences in Saudi Arabia and other gulf countries. RPW assimilates the components of palm tree tissues. Significant amount of microbiota in the gut of RPW may contribute to success of its pathogenesis. This study explored...

Author(s): Mohammad Khiyami and Essam Alyamani

May 2008

Rapid and efficient production of transgenic East African Highland Banana (Musa spp.) using intercalary meristematic tissues

  East Africa is the largest banana producing and consuming region in Africa.  In particular, the East African Highland Banana serves as the major staple crop of countries like Uganda, but production is constrained by a number of serious pests and diseases.  Banana breeding is a very...

Author(s): Leena Tripathi, Jaindra Nath Tripathi and Wilberforce Kateera Tushemereirwe

May 2008

Molecular genetic variation in the African wild rice Oryza longistaminata A. Chev. et Roehr. and its association with environmental variables

  Molecular markers, complemented by appropriate Geographical Information System (GIS) software packages are powerful tools in mapping the geographical distribution of genetic variation and assessing its relationship with environmental variables. The objective of the study was therefore to investigate the relationship between genetic diversity and eco-geographic variables using Oryza longistaminata as...

Author(s): D. K. Kiambi, H. J. Newbury, N. Maxted and B. V. Ford-Lloyd

May 2008

Optimization of a protocol for extraction of Plasmodium falciparum RNA from infected whole blood samples for use in DNA microarrays

  This study was carried out to determine the efficiency of two reagents, RNAlater and RNAwiz, for their ability to stabilize Plasmodium falciparum RNA in infected whole blood and saponin lysed parasite pellets for use in DNA microarrays. Eight infected blood samples were stored in each of the reagents, and RNA extracted at days 0 and 56 post collection. RNA yields and quality were compared at the...

Author(s): Jaffu Chilongola, Sakurani Balthazary and Erasto Mbugi

May 2008

Photoinhibition influences protein utilisation during seed germination in Cleome gynandra L.

  Seed storage proteins are mobilised during germination, especially at radicle protrusion. The objective of this study was to examine changes in protein expression during germination of Cleome gynandra in the presence or absence of light and at constant or alternating temperatures. Seeds were germinated at alternating 30/20 or 20oC in darkness and in continuous white light. Four prominent proteins of...

Author(s): Julius O. Ochuodho, Albert T. Modi and Mervyn Beukes

May 2008

Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat varieties under the conditions of Northwestern Turkey

  In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from Romania, were evaluated for grain yield and seven agronomic properties in Biga, Çanakkale in northwest part of Turkey in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007 growing seasons. The objectives of the research, carried out in a completely randomized block design with 3 replicates, were to investigate Romanian wheat...

Author(s): Şemun Tayyar

May 2008

Suppression of stem growth in pot kalanchoe ‘Gold Strike’ by recycled subirrigational supply of plant growth retardants

  Effect of concentration of paclobutrazol and uniconazole supplied to the recycling nutrient solution in an ebb and flow system on the growth and flowering of kalanchoe cultivar ‘Gold Strike’ was examined. Plants potted in 10 cm (370 mL) pots were supplied with a nutrient solution containing 80 mL per pot of 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 mgּL-1 paclobutrazol or of 0.125, 0.250, or 0.50...

Author(s): Seung Jae Hwang, Mi Young Lee, Young Hoon Park, Iyyakkannu Sivanesan and Byoung Ryong Jeong,

May 2008

Evaluation of cellulosic wastes for the cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii (DC. ex Fr.) Quel

  This study investigated the possible use of local cellulosic wastes for the cultivation of Pleurotus eryngii (DC. ex Fr.) Quel. var. ferulae Lanzi and Pleurotus eryngii (DC. ex Fr.) Quel. For the propagation of the main culture, 2.0% malt-extract agar was used whereas barley grains were used for the propagation of spawn. For the formation of basidiocarp, wheat straw (WS), soybean...

Author(s): Mehmet Akyüz and Abdunnasır Yildiz

May 2008

The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L

  Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and the flowers in the same order....

Author(s): Okoh O.O, Sadimenko A.P, Asekun O.T and Afolayan A.J

May 2008

Isolation and characterization of cellulose hydrolysing microorganism from the rumen of ruminants

  Microorganisms that were isolated from the rumen of three different ruminants (cow, sheep, and goat) include Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.0%), Bacillus(37.8%), Micrococcus (8.1%) and Streptococcus (44.3%) species for bacteria, while the fungi isolated were species of Fusarium (21.2%), Penicillium (23.4%),Aspergillus (14.7%) and Mucor (40.6%)....

Author(s): Oyeleke, S. B. and Okusanmi ,T. A.

May 2008

Effect of varying temperature on growth, morphology and soluble protein content of div IV and div V mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis

  Cell division affecting genes (div genes) have been mapped on circular chromosome of Bacillus subtilis. In the present work, div-gene(s) involved in mini-cell production and temperature sensitive cell division were studied. Effect of different temperatures (25, 37 and 42°C) and varying incubation periods (4, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h) on the colony and cell morphology, staining behavior, growth...

Author(s): Ambreen Ahmed, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Shahida Hasnain

May 2008

Biodegrading effects of some rot fungi on Pinus caribaea wood

  Wood samples were collected from a ten-year old plantation of Pinus caribaea(morelet) in Ijaiye Forest Reserve, 38 km northwest of Ibadan, Nigeria. The wood samples were inoculated separately with two species of white-rot fungi;Corioliopsis polyzona and Pleurotus squarrosulus, and two species of brown-rot fungi; Lentinus lepideus and Gleophyllum, striatum. Wood weight loss...

Author(s): Emerhi, E. A., Ekeke, B. A. and Oyebade, B. A.

May 2008

Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil inoculated with organic manure

  Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was then mixed in a ratio of 4:1 with sewage sludge. Compost heaps were set up in triplicates on wood pallets...

Author(s): Harrison Ifeanyichukwu Atagana

May 2008

Determination of some trace metal levels in onion leaves from irrigated farmlands on the bank of River Challawa, Nigeria

  The concentration (mg kg-1 dry weight) of Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn were determined in onion leaves samples using atomic absorption spectrometry. A total of 16 samples each of onion leaves freshly harvested were collected from the exposed and control sites for analysis. The trace metal (Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) levels in the onion leaves of the study site were found to be higher than those of the control site. The...

Author(s): Abdullahi, M. S., Uzairu, A. and Okunola, O. J.

May 2008

The effects of Niger State water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna)

  The effect of water treatment plant effluent on its receiving river (Kaduna) was examined. Samples were collected from the effluents discharge from Chanchaga water treatment plant into upstream and down stream of the receiving river monthly for six month. Samples were analyzed in the laboratory for microbial counts and identification, as well as physico-chemical properties. Laboratory analysis confirmed that...

Author(s): Oyeleke, S. B. and Istifanus, N.

May 2008

Alkaline protease production on date waste by an alkalophilic Bacillus sp. 2-5 isolated from soil

  This research focused on isolation and characterization of a new strain of Bacillussp. from alkaline soil, which was able to producing extracellular alkaline protease and amylase from date waste at pH ranging from 8 to 11 and temperatures of 20 to 50°C. Purification was conducted by fractionation, concentration, and cation exchange chromatography. The yield and fold of enzyme...

Author(s): K. Khosravi-Darani, H.R. Falahatpishe and M. Jalali

May 2008

Effect of various parameters on the efficiency of zinc phosphate solubilization by indigenous bacterial isolates

  Zinc phosphate solubilization efficiency of ten soil bacteria were studied for various parameters like carbon sources, temperature, pH, variable concentration of sodium chloride and glucose. For majority of the isolates 20oC was appeared to be the optimum temperature for solubilization of zinc phosphate. Glucose was the most favorable carbon source for solubilization while lactose is the least favorable...

Author(s): Sadaf Shahab and Nuzhat Ahmed

May 2008

Antibiotic and surfactant effects on lysine accumulation by Bacillus megaterium

  The effects of antibiotics and surfactants on lysine accumulation in the culture broth of three strains of Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium SP 86, B.megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium SP 14) were investigated. Lincomycin, neomycin and tetracycline stimulated lysine increase in B. megaterium SP 76 andB. megaterium SP 14, while erythromycin enhanced...

Author(s): I. A. Ekwealor and J. A. N. Obeta

May 2008

Effect of Dettolâ on viability of some microorganisms associated with nosocomial infections

  The efficacy of the liquid disinfectant Dettolâ against nosocomial Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans was investigated. Use dilutions of the disinfectant were not immediately lethal to the microorganisms, with the survival curves exhibiting an initial shoulder before exponential order of death. Tap water adversely affected the death rates and...

Author(s): EL Mahmood, A. M. and Doughari, J. H.

May 2008

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Origanum compactum essential oil

  In the present study, essential oil of Origanum compactum was analysed and its chemical composition was identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among thirty two assayed constituents, carvacrol (30.53%), thymol (27.50%) and its precursor g-terpinene (18.20%) were found to be the major components. The oil was investigated for its in...

Author(s): Bouhdid, S., Skali, S. N., Idaomar, M., Zhiri, A., Baudoux, D., Amensour,M. and Abrini, J.

May 2008

Antibacterial activity of the crude extract of Chinese green tea (Camellia sinensis) on Listeria monocytogenes

  The antibacterial activity of the methanol and aqueous extract of Camellia sinensison Listeria monocytogenes were investigated using agar-gel diffusion, paper disk diffusion and microbroth dilution techniques. The results obtained showed that methanol and water extract exhibited antibacterial activities against L.monocytogenes. The leaf extract produced inhibition zone ranging from...

Author(s): Mbata, T. I., Debiao, L. U. and  Saikia, A.

May 2008

Emulsifying behavior of an exopolysaccharide produced by Enterobacter cloacae

  A major concern for industrial production of microbial emulsifiers is expensive substrates. The aim of this work was to produce a microbial exopolysaccharide (EPS) using sea broth. Seawater, seawater + distilled water and nutrient broth were inoculated with Enterobacter cloacea and incubated in a rotary shaker at 37°C for 80 h. The microorganism produced different amount of exopolysaccharide in...

Author(s): Azam Abbasi and Sedigheh Amiri

May 2008

Oral administration of Rauwolfia vomitoria extract has no untoward effect on kidney and liver functions in rats

  The effect of ethanolic extract of leaf and root of Rauwolfia vomitoria on kidney and liver functions in rats was investigated. Rats were given daily oral administration of ethanolic extracts of either root or leaf of R. vomitoria at two different concentrations (1.0 and 2.0 g/kg body weight) for a period of 14 days. Some biochemical parameters in the serum, liver and kidney of the rats...

Author(s): Oyewole, O. I. and Massaquoi, H. O.

May 2008

Preliminary study into the long term effects of a hypoglycaemic polyherbal formula (Yem-Kem) on some biochemical parameters in normal rabbits

  The blood glucose lowering capacity of the polyherbal formula (Yem-Kem) was investigated in this study in an in vivo clinical trial using normal Sprague-Dawley rabbits orally administered with the formula over a 60 day period. The results showed that continuous exposure to the extract resulted in an overall lowered blood glucose level, lowered body weight and serum triglycerides, an increased...

Author(s): Ojekale, A. B., Kappo, M. A., Agbasoro, S. and Kazeem, A.

May 2008

The use of methemoglobin complex in estimating cyanogen potential of cassava and cassava products

  An improved method of analysis of cyanide in cassava and cassava products using methemoglobin complex is described. The cyanogen content of cassava mash, pre-fufu mash, fufu and Gari was determined spectrophotometrically. Optimal conditions were determined to be 24 h at 370C in phosphate buffer (0.05 M; pH 5.6). The average cyanogen content obtained were 14.68 ± 0.66, 13.49 ± 0.02, 11.94...

Author(s): J. C. Ajaelu, J. T. Bamgbose, B. O. Atolaiye and A. A. Adetoye

May 2008

Proximate analysis of some dry season vegetables in Anyigba, Kogi State, Nigeria

  Vegetable is a vital component of human diet that should be eaten all year round, but they are scarce during dry season in Anyigba community in Kogi State, Nigeria. Available dry season vegetables such as the leaves of Manihot esculentum(Cassava), Piper guineese (Oziza), Chromolena odorata (Akintola), Solanum melanogaster (Garden egg) and Voandzeia...

Author(s): A. Taiga, M. N. Suleiman, D. O. Aina, W. F. Sule and G. O. Alege

May 2008

Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content of Cassia sophera L

  Dried methanol extract of leaves of Cassia sophera L. was dissolved in distilled water, and then fractioned by re-extracting with n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate, subsequently. The free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) of methanol extract and various fractions of methanol extract was determined by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The FRSA of ethyl acetate fraction was...

Author(s): Atiqur Rahman,  , M. Mizanur Rahman, , Md. Mominul Islam Sheik, M. Mashiar Rahman, Shabah Mohammad Shadli and M. F. Alam

May 2008

Response of chickens to oral vaccination with Newcastle disease virus vaccine strain I2 coated on maize offal

  Thermostable Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine virus strain I2 was investigated for its efficacy as food-borne vaccine, using maize offal as the vehicle. Immune response to vaccination and resistance to challenge were assessed by standard methods. Results showed that following primary vaccination, 40 (64.5%) out of the 62 birds produced detectable haemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibody, but only 4...

Author(s): Echeonwu, B. C., Ngele, M. B., Echeonwu, G. O. N., Joannis, T. M.,Onovoh, E. M. and Paul G.

May 2008

Acute toxicity studies of aqueous stem bark extract of Ximenia americana

  Increasing interest in medicinal plants has increased scientific scrutiny of their therapeutic potentials and safety thereby providing physicians with data to help patients make wise decision on their usage. The stem bark of Ximenia americanawas evaluated for its phytochemical constituents and acute toxicity effect on thirty Swiss albino mice. The extracts were administered intraperitoneally/orally at...

Author(s): Maikai, V. A., Kobo, P. I. and Adaudi, A. O.