African Journal of
Biotechnology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12198

Table of Content: 18 July 2008; 7(14)

July 2008

Aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis leaves reduces blood sugar and increases haematological and reproductive indices in male rats

The effects of the aqueous extract of the leaves of Telfairia Occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) were studied on some haematological indices, sperm parameters and blood glucose in male albino rats. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first part, twelve (12) male rats were divided into two groups of six (6) rats each. Group 1 rats served as control and were given 10 ml/kg of normal saline while the...

Author(s):   Toyin M. Salman, Luqman A. Olayaki and Wahab A. Oyeyemi

January 2008

Phytochemical, nutritional and medical properties of some leafy vegetables consumed by Edo people of Nigeria

A systematic survey of green leafy vegetables from Edo State of Nigeria was carried out to evaluate their frequency of use in local meals. Twelve commonest ones out of the twenty nine green leafy vegetables encountered with frequency ≥1.5% were selected for further evaluation to determine their nutritional and medicinal values. Fresh leaves were shredded and sun dried before milling into vegetable powder and then...

Author(s): J.K. Mensah, R.I. Okoli, J.O. Ohaju-Obodo and K. Eifediyi

July 2008

HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6) in in vitro and ex vitro germinated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

In the present communication, a comparative HPLC analysis of water-soluble vitamins (B-group) was carried out in in vitro and ex vitro germinated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) seeds. Quantitative analysis of ex vitro and in vitro germinated seedlings showed significant differences in vitamin contents. Maximum amount with a linear increase in B1 (thiamine HCl), B2...

Author(s): Junaid Aslam, Mohammed S. Mohajir, Saeed A. Khan, and Abdul Q. Khan

July 2008

DSN1 deletion is deleterious to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae while Dsn1p disrupts nuclear segregation process of Chinese Hamster Ovary cell

Dsn1p is a component of the mind complex (Mtw1p Including Nnf1p-Nsl1p-Dsn1p) that is essential for the segregation of chromosome in yeast cells.  This protein assists the joining of kinetochore subunits contacting DNA to those contacting microtubules in yeast cells.  Null mutants of this protein are not viable while the over-expression of the Dsn1 protein in yeast cells results in nuclear anomalies and growth...

Author(s): Beow Chin Yiap, A .K. Radhakrishnan and Nadimpalli Ravi S. Varma

July 2008

Immunomodulating properties of Trino IB immunobooster

Trino IB mixture at a very minimal concentration (0.2 ml) was found not only to protect rats against lethal dose of pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli andStaphylococcus aureus but  it is also capable of ameliorating the deleterious effect of very high concentration of sodium arsenite (6 mg/kg body weight) in rat and bird.    Key words: Immunobooster, Escherichia...

Author(s): Oloke JK

July 2008

Molecular markers for predicting end-products quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

The high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are key factors in bread making quality since they are major contributors of glutenin elasticity and polymer formation of wheat dough. DNA markers for quality traits are currently used by wheat breeders for direct measurement of these traits without waiting for advancing generations of breeding materials to conduct biochemical tests. The goal of this study was to use...

Author(s): Ahmed L. Abdel-Mawgood

July 2008

Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties

Yellow rust resistance locus Yr10 located on chromosome 1B in Moro and originated from the Turkish line PI178383 was investigated in terms of polymorphism in seven winter type bread wheat cvs. (Triticum aestivum ssp.Aestivum) Altay2000, İzgi2001, Sönmez2001 (yellow rust resistant), Aytın98, ES14, Harmankaya99 (yellow rust susceptible) and PI178383 as control. Exon 1 (1 - 833 bp) and Exon 2 (1989 -...

Author(s): A. Temel, F. Şentürk-Akfırat, F. Ertuğrul, A. Yumurtacı, Y. Aydın, T. Talas-Oğraş, N. Gözükırmızı, N. Bolat, Ö. Yorgancılar, S. Belen, M. Yıldırım, M. Çakmak, E. Özdemir, L. Çetin, Z. Mert, H. Sipahi, S. Albustan, K. Akan, F. Düşünceli and A. Altınkut Uncuoğlu.

July 2008

Genetic diversity in Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) willd revealed by combined RAPD and ISSR markers

Acacia senegal belongs to the subgenus, Aculeiferum. It is an African arid and semi arid zone multipurpose tree species, highly valued for gum arabic production, agroforestry and desertification control besides  other multiple uses. Genetic variation and resulting variable groupings were assessed using combined RAPD+ISSR markers within and among four Kenyan populations of A....

Author(s): Chiveu Chemulanga Josiah, Dangasuk Otto George, Omunyin Michael Eleazar and Wachira Francis Nyamu

July 2008

Application of physiological and biochemical indices as a screening technique for drought tolerance in wheat genotypes

With a view to understanding the traits which can be used as a quick criteria for drought tolerance, field and laboratory experiments were used to evaluate nine wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes; seven local varieties with two introduced genotypes from International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). The field experiment was grown under two water regimes (stress and non stress...

Author(s): T. Y. Bayoumi, Manal H. Eid and E. M. Metwali

July 2008

The use of biolistic inoculation of cassava mosaic begomoviruses in screening cassava cultivars from Ghana for resistance/susceptibility to cassava mosaic disease

The resistance/susceptibility of 5 cassava cultivars from Ghana to infectious clones of two cassava mosaic viruses (ACMV-[CM] and EACMV/ACMV-[CM]) was investigated in this study. Plantlets of cassava cultivars were obtained using nodal cuttings initiated from tissue culture. These cassava cultivars were challenged with both DNA A and B components of the infectious clones named above using particle gun bombardment. The...

Author(s): Kwadwo Owusu Ayeh and Jon N. E. Ramsell

July 2008

Phenotypic variations of F1 and F2 populations from three species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

Emerging chromosome types in some Solanum species underscore inherent potentials and possible new and expanded genome. Interspecific crosses involving the varieties of Solanum melongena L., Solanum macrocarpon L. and Solanum aethiopicum L. were carried out to assess species phylogenetic relationships and the extent of evolutionary changes with a view to improving the agronomic...

Author(s):

July 2008

Effects of land quality, management and cropping systems on cassava production in southern western Nigeria

The study was carried out to assess the effects of land quality, management and cropping system on cassava production in the derived savanna and rain forest of southwestern Nigeria. Soil quality was studied from farmers’ fields which had been under cassava cultivation for at least ten (10) years. The yield data obtained from different crop mixtures and management practices were compared with the performance of...

Author(s): Ande, O. T., Adediran, J. A., Ayoola, O. T. and Akinlosotu, T. A.

July 2008

Behavioral response of resistant and sensitive Pseudomonas aeruginosa S22 isolated from Sohag Governorate, Egypt to cadmium stress

A total of 62 Pseudomonas isolates were selected from a contaminated site at Sohag district and tested for their resistance tto cadmium metal. Isolate no. 22 was found to be the most resistant one and has a plasmid with molecular wt27.491 Kbp. The minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) for the resistant (R) and adopted sensitive (S) isolates were 1.0 and 0.119 mmol L-1, respectively. The growth,...

Author(s): El-Sayed, M. Soltan, Rehab, M. Mohamed and Ahmed, A. Shoreit

July 2008

Indigenous knowledge of rural communities in Malawi on socio-economic use, propagation, biology, biodiversity and ecology of Uapaca kirkiana Muell. Arg

Uapaca kirkiana Muell Arg. is one of the most popular indigenous fruit trees in the Miombo woodlands of southern Africa. An investigation into existing indigenous knowledge and socio- economic use of this fruit tree was conducted in Malawi. The survey revealed that U. kirkiana fruits contribute considerably to livelihood as a food supplement and for income generation among local communities. However,U....

Author(s): Y. M. Ntupanyama, W. F. Mwase, B. Stedje, M. B. Kwapata, J. M. Bokosi and A. K. Hvoslef-Eide

July 2008

Influence of vermicompost on soil chemical and physical properties in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) field

In this study, the effects of vermicompost on soil chemical and physical propertieswas evaluated in tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var Super Beta) field. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Different amounts of vermicompost (0, 5, 10, 15 t ha-1) were incorporated into the top 15 cm of soil. The soil sampling and measurements carried out 3 months after the...

Author(s): Rasool Azarmi, Mousa Torabi Giglou and Rahim Didar Taleshmikail

July 2008

Effects of Fusarium verticilloides, its metabolites and neem leaf extract on germination and vigour indices of maize (Zea mays L.)

Maize (Zea mays L.) seed samples were collected from three markets in Minna, Niger State to investigate the effect of Fusarium verticilloides, its metabolites and neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf ethanolic extract on germination of the seeds and seedling vigour. Among the fungi genera isolated from the seeds samples wereAspergillus spp. (41.18%), Fusarium spp. (29.41%) and Rhizopus spp....

Author(s):   Samuel Toba Anjorin, Hussaini Anthony Makun, Titilayo Adesina and Ibrahim Kudu

July 2008

In vitro culture of Telfairia occidentalis under different cytokinins and auxin combination

Telfairia occidentalis is a tropical vine and has been a good source of iron rich vegetable to man. It is normally propagated through seeds but the seeds are recalcitrant in nature. The vegetative propagation of T. occidentalis has been difficult hence there is a need to develop an in vitro method. Nodal cuttings of T. occidentalis was cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS; 1962) basal...

Author(s): Samuel Toba Anjorin, Hussaini Anthony Makun, Titilayo Adesina and Ibrahim KuduSanusi I. S., Odofin W. T., Aladele S. E., Olayode M. N., Gamra E. O. and Fajimi O.

July 2008

The protective effect of plasma antioxidants during ozone autohemotherapy

  Ozone (O3) therapy forms part of a group of complementary and alternative medical therapies and is gaining more and more interest worldwide. There is, however, some concern regarding O3-toxicity and uncertainty about the effectiveness of O3-therapy. In this study we investigated the possible protective effects of the plasma antioxidant defense system during O3-AHT. Venous blood from six apparently...

Author(s): L.H du Plessis, F.H. van der Westhuizen and H.F. Kotzé

July 2008

Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Tilapia mariae (Boulenger 1901) in a small lake in south-eastern Nigeria

  Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Tilapia mariae of Umuoseriche man-made lake such as fecundity of female fishes was determined gravimetrically after the sex had been established. The ratio of male to female T. mariae of Umuoseriche Lake was 1:1.56. The numbers of female fishes were greater in 110 – 145 mm and 185 – 195 mm size groups. Males dominated the 135...

Author(s): Afamdi Anene and Peter U. Okorie

July 2008

Optimization of process variables for the microbial degradation of phenol by Pseudomonas aeruginosa using response surface methodology

  Removal efficiency of phenol from aqueous solutions was measured using a freely suspended monoculture of indigenous Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Experiments were performed as a function of temperature (25– 45oC), aeration (1.0 – 3.5 vvm) and agitation (200 – 600 rpm). Optimization of these three process parameters for phenol biodegradation was studied. Statistically designed experiments...

Author(s): S. E. Agarry, B. O. Solomon and   S. K. Layokun

July 2008

Kinetics of batch microbial degradation of phenols by indigenous binary mixed culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas fluorescence

  The potential of various organisms to metabolize organic compounds has been observed to be a potentially effective means in disposing of hazardous and toxic wastes. Phenolic compounds have long been recognized as one of the most recalcitrant and persistent organic chemicals in the environment. The bioremediation potential of an indigenous binary mixed culture of Pseudomonas...

Author(s): S. E. Agarry, B. O. Solomon and S. K. Layokun

July 2008

The effect of hydrodynamics on nitrogen accumulation and physiological characteristics of Vallisneria spiraslis L in eutrophicated water

  Natural water hydrodynamic conditions play an important role in the nutrients transport among water, soil and plants. Meanwhile, aquatic plants affect the water flow characters and pollutants purification capability. However, there are limited studies on how these conditions affects the nutrient uptake and physiological response of aquatic plants. From May 18 to June 28, 2007, a kind of submerged...

Author(s): Pei-Fang Wang, Chao Wang, Xiao-rong Wang, Jun Hou and Song-He Zhang

July 2008

Economic importance and application options of some industrial sludge conditioned by different treatment methods

  Industrial sludge was obtained from four industries: aluminium extrusion, brewery, pharmaceutical and textile processing factory and treated by aerobic, anaerobic, physicochemical, combined aerobic/physicochemical and combined anaerobic/ physicochemical methods. The results showed that the final destination of the sludge would determine the type and degree of treatment required for the sludge. Physicochemical...

Author(s): Asia, Imohimi O., Ekpo, K. E. and Chukwuedo, M. E.

July 2008

Lead, zinc and pH concentrations of Enyigba soils in Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria

  The concentrations of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were quantitatively determined in surface and sub-surface soils in Enyigba, Ebonyi State, Nigerian’s major lead mining area using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. pH status of the soils was similarly determined. The survey was conducted to establish a base line pollution index for lead and zinc in Enyigba soil as an exogenous source of these metals among...

Author(s): F. N. Nweke, A.N.C. Okaka and E. C. Offor

July 2008

Effect of chemical pretreatment of some lignocellulosic wastes on the recovery of cellulase from Aspergillus niger AH3 mutant

  Lignocellulosic biomass holds remarkable potential for conversion into commodity products presenting dual advantage of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality. Though their utilization does not compete with food and feed demand, its bioconversion and utilizability is facilitated by pretreatment. The effect of the substrate pre-treatment using acid and alkali at two different concentrations (0.5...

Author(s): Damisa, D., Ameh, J. B. and Umoh, V. J.

July 2008

Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities and phytochemical properties of extracts of Tamaridus indica against some diseases causing bacteria

  Crude aqueous and ethanol extracts of Tamaridus indica were investigated for antibacterial activity. The susceptibility of five clinical bacterial isolates against these two crude extracts was determined using the disk diffusion method. The ethanol extracts produce strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli,Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi A and Pseudomonas...

Author(s): S. Y. Daniyan and H. B. Muhammad

July 2008

Over-expression of xylanolytic α-glucuronidase from Thermotoga maritima in the pHsh system of Escherichia coli for the production of xylobiose from xylan

  The GH67α-glucuronidase encoded by aguA of Thermotoga maritima is one of the most thermostable α-glucuronidases described to date and thus has considerable potential in industrial application. The enzyme was higher expressed by using the novel pHsh expression vector than in pET vector in Echerichia coli. The site directed mutations changed codons for the...

Author(s): Yemin Xue, Jinjin Yu, Xiangfei Song, Jingjing Peng, Weilan Shao

July 2008

Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Pinus caribaea from Nigeria

  The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the needles of Pinus caribaea by hydrodistillation was analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.  A total of twenty nine compounds, representing 93.8% of the oil were identified. The major constituents of the essential oil were β-phellandrene (67.9%), β-caryophyllene (10.2%) and α-pinene (5.4%). High...

Author(s): O. Oluwadayo Sonibare and K. Olakunle    

July 2008

Influence of ultrasonic stimulation on the germination of barley seed and its alpha-amylase activity

  In this study, the influence of ultrasonic stimulation was investigated on the germination of barley and alpha-amylase activity grains in the dry state before steeping. All experiments have been performed using an ultrasonic horn operating at a fixed frequency of 20 KHz in 3 different ultrasonic power (20, 60 and 100% setting from total electrical power of device (460W) and time (5, 10 and 15 min) at constant...

Author(s): Maryam Yaldagard, Seyed Ali Mortazavi and Farideh Tabatabaie

July 2008

Effects of dietary protein levels on the growth performance of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy-Saint-Hilaire, 1809) fingerlings from the Niger Delta

  Fingerlings of Heterobranchus bidorsalis were fed six isocaloric diets at different crude protein levels at 5% of body weight to determine the growth performance. Growth rate and weight gain increased progressively with dietary protein level to a maximum at 40%. Significant differences (p<0.05) were recorded for the growth indices. The nutrient utilization parameters had variable results among...

Author(s): Jamabo, N. A. and Alfred-Ockiya, J. F.

July 2008

Resistance source to cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) in broad bean (Vicia faba L.) Algerian landrace collection

  The present study evaluated the resistance of 7 varieties of the broad bean Vicia faba L. to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854. These landraces from the region of Biskra (in the south of Algeria) were selected in an initial field trial and subjected to further testing in the greenhouse. Landrace V51 proved to be the most interesting, in that it resisted aphid attack by mechanisms...

Author(s): M. Laamari⊃, L. Khelfa⊃ and A. Cœur d’Acier⊃

July 2008

In vitro plant regeneration from Narbon Vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) using cotyledonary node explants

  Narbon vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.) is an agriculturally important forage plant that widely grows in an area extending from Central Europe to various parts of Asia. The study reports axillary shoot regeneration from cotyledonary node explants obtained from, in vitro raised seeds of 4 - 5 and 14 - 15 days old seedlings on MS medium containing 2 - 6 mg/l kinetin-0.1 mg/l indole-3-butyric...

Author(s): Hayrettin Kendir, Nurdan Sahin-Demirbag, Khalid Mahmood Khawar, and Muhammad Aasim

July 2008

Survival and development of Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera:Tephritidae) immature stages at four temperatures in the laboratory

  Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera:Tephritidae) is the most important and widespread pest in the olive growing countries in the Mediterranean basin. The development and survival of olive fruit fly, B. oleae from egg to adult stage was studied in the laboratory at 16, 22, 27 and 35°C. The objective of the study was to get information on the influence of temperature on immature stages as a...

Author(s): Hanife Genç and James L. Nation

July 2008

Strain improvement and optimization of the media composition of chitosanase-producing fungus Aspergillus sp. CJ 22-326

  A mutant Aspergillus sp. CJ 22-326-14 with higher production of chitosanase was selected by serial mutation procedure, and the optimization of medium components was performed using one-factor-at-a-time combined with orthogonal array design method. The results showed that chitosan, wheat bran and (NH4)2SO4 were the most important components by one-factor-at-a-time experiments. And the optimal...

Author(s): Xiao-E Chen, Xu-Bo Fang and Wen-Sui Xia

July 2008

Ripening stage and drying method affecting colour and quality attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana fruits in Zimbabwe

  Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk. (Ber) fruit is harvested at different stages of ripening in the Zambezi valley of Zimbabwe. We hypothesize that the organoleptic quality attributes of fruits depend on post-harvest drying method and ripening stage at harvest. This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different stages of ripening on the quality of Z. mauritiana fruits during drying. The...

Author(s): Lovejoy Tembo, Z.A Chiteka, Irene Kadzere,Festus K Akinnifesi and F. Tagwira

July 2008

Acute toxicity of potassium permanganate to fingerlings of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

Laboratory static bioassays were conducted to determine the 96-h LC50 and the lethal levels of concentrations of the aquaculture therapeutant, potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on fingerlings (mean weight, 6.24 ± 0.15 g and mean length, 4.25 ± 0.07 cm) of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. A total number of one hundred and eighty (180) fingerlings of mixed sex and brood stock were used for the...

Author(s): Kori-Siakpere, Ovie

July 2008

Body measurement characteristics of the West African Dwarf (WAD) Goat in deciduous forest zone of Southwestern Nigeria

  Two hundred and forty four (244) West African Dwarf (WAD) Goats comprising one hundred and sixty (160) females and eighty-four (84) males in five (5) age groups in years (0 - 1, 1 - 2,  2 - 3,  3 - 4  and 4 - 5) for female and two (2) age groups also in years (0 - 1 and 1 - 2) for males were investigated. The aim was to document the body characteristics of the WAD goats in the deciduous forest...

Author(s): O. K. Samuel Fajemilehin and A. E. Salako

July 2008

DNA polymorphism of butyrophilin gene by PCR-RFLP technique

  Butyrophilin plays an important role in secretion of milk lipid. The present study describes polymorphism of butyrophilin gene. This is the first study of butyrophilin gene polymorphism in Najdi cattle of Iran. We used the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique to screen for DNA polymorphism in 109 cattle. In all cattle, we amplified an 863 fragment consisting...

Author(s): A. S. Sadr, M. T. Beigi Nasiri, Kh. Alami-Saeid, J. Fayazi, H. Roshanfekr and M. Mohammadi