African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12218

Table of Content: 26 July 2010; 9(30)

July 2010

Effects of potassium behaviour in soils on crop absorption

Potassium (K) is one of the three major elements that play important roles in plants, such as maintaining  turgor of cells, promoting activation of enzymes, and improving efficiency of photosynthesis. The types  of K in soil may affect the plant absorption of K. K in soils includes K minerals, K in layered silicates  (clay minerals), exchangeable K and K in solution. The former two can provide...

Author(s): Yong-Hong Lin

July 2010

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of two Serbian potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Dragačevka and cv. Jelica)

An efficient protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Serbian potato cultivars Dragačevka and Jelica, enabling the introduction of oryzacystatin genesOCI and OCII, was established. Starting with leaf explants, a two-stage transformation protocol combining procedures of Webb and Wenzler provided high shoot regeneration efficiency: 84 - 89% for Dragačevka cultivar and 60 - 68% for Jelica...

Author(s): Aleksandar Cingel, Branka Vinterhalter, Dragan Vinterhalter, Dušica Ćalić-Dragosavac, Ann Smigocki and Slavica Ninković

July 2010

Localizing introgression on the chromosome of rice by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH)

Genomic in situ hybridization was used to detect introgressed segment from Oryza australinesis onto the chromosomes of introgression line derived from the hybrid O. sativa x O. australinesis. Genomic DNA from Oryza australinesis was labeled with biotin and hybridized to the homologous sequences on the O. sativachromosomes. The probe hybridization fluoresced green and non...

Author(s): Fida M. Abbasi, Safdar H. Shah, Alia Gul, A. Majid, M. Afzal, R. Mujaddad, Azhar H. Shah,  R Masood, N. Shafqat , I. Bukhari  and Abid Ali

July 2010

Genetic variability in Sudanese Acacia senegal (L.) assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA

Random Amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to characterize the genetic diversity and relationships among (Acacia senegal). A total of 15 primers were tested with the 30 genotypes of  Acacia spp. (28 A. senegal, one A.mellifera and one A. leata). The results indicated that 7 primers (60%) showed at least 1 consistent polymorphic band. The seven informative primers were...

Author(s): Rami S. Habeballa, Nada B. Hamza and Eisa I. El Gaali

July 2010

Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and internal transcribed spacer 2 regions as targets for molecular identification of medically important Zanthoxylum schinifolium

Molecular approaches are now being developed to provide a more rapid and objective identification compared to traditional phenotypic methods. Nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) targets, especially internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2), have been widely used for molecular identification of some plants and fungi. We therefore conducted an investigation in the identification of the fifth medically...

Author(s): Sun Yan-Lin, Park Wan-Geun, Kwon Oh-Woung and Hong Soon-Kwan

July 2010

Construction of a high-EGFR expression cell line and its biological properties comparing with A431 cell

Targeted screening of EGFR compounds has become one of the medical research focuses for tumor therapy. A431, which naturally expresses high levels of EGFR, was compared with the stably high expressing EGFR cell line HEK293. Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell growth and Western blot was used to determine expression of EGFR, p-EGFR and p-ERK. Cellular membrane chromatography analysis revealed longer on-peak...

Author(s): Yanmin Zhang, Xu Li, Xuemei Xu and Wen-juan Luo

July 2010

Management of Fusarium corm rot of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus sect. Blandus cv. Aarti) by using leaves of allelopathic plants

Two pot experiments were conducted to investigate the potential of different plant materials to manage the corm rot disease of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus sect. Blandus cv. Aarti) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli (Massey) Snyd. & Hans. In the first experiment, leaves of five allelopathic plant species viz.Eucalyptus citriodora Hook, Syzygium cumini (L.)...

Author(s): Tariq Riaz, Salik Nawaz Khan and Arshad Javaid

July 2010

Heritability and genetic gain of some morpho-physiological variables of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum)

The purpose of this work is to estimate genetic variability parameters and relationship among 11 agro-physiological traits studied on 18 experimental durum wheat and two checks under rainfed condition. The studied traits included the grain yield (YLD), plant height (PH), number of tiller per plant (NT), peduncle length (PL), flag length (FL), leaf dry weight (LDW), stem dry weight (STW), spike dry weight (SPW), spike...

Author(s): Danail Kahrizi, Kianoosh Cheghamirza, Mehdi Kakaei, Reza Mohammadi and Abdolghafar Ebadi

July 2010

Quantitative trait loci analysis for chlorophyll content of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings under low-light stress

An increase in chlorophyll content is an adaptive response to low-light stress and can be used to evaluate low-light tolerance. The effects of low-light stress (100 µmol·m-2.s-1) on the chlorophyll content of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were investigated in a set of 123 F2:3 lines in the seedling stage in the autumn of 2008 and spring of 2009. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was...

Author(s): Dan Dan Li, Long Ting Si, Guan Ying Zhang, Sheng Ju Zhang and Li Bo Tian

July 2010

Comparison of soybean evapotranspirations measured by weighing lysimeter and Bowen ratio-energy balance methods

Lysimeters are considered the standard for evapotranspiration (ET) measurements. However, these units are often not replicated and are few in number at any given location. The Bowen ratio-energy balance (BREB) is a micrometeorological method often used to estimate ET because of its simplicity, robustness, and cost. In this paper, ET of irrigated soybean (Glycine max L.) was directly measured by weighing...

Author(s): Mustafa Ünlü, Rıza Kanber and Burçak Kapur

July 2010

Effects of synthetic hormone substitutes and genotypes on rooting and mini tuber production of vines cuttings obtained from white yam (Dioscorea rotundata, Poir)

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of some root - promoting substances on rooting and mini tuber formation using vine cuttings obtained from two genotypes (TDr 335 and TDr 93 - 49) of white yam (D. rotundata). The ashes were obtained from rice straw, bamboo, Gliricidia sepium, dry leaves of Azardiracta indica (neem), and 1% indolebutyric acid (IBA). These were powdered on the nodal...

Author(s): S. O. Agele, T. G. Ayankanmi and H. Kikuno

July 2010

A screening method for banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) resistance using reference genotypes

The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) is a serious pest in most banana-growing areas of the world. Host-plant resistance is considered to be the most feasible and sustainable method for its control. However, a quick and effective method for screening banana genotypes for resistance against the banana weevil to facilitate selection and/or development of resistant genotypes is lacking. The objective of the...

Author(s): Kassim Sadik, Moses Nyine and Michael Pillay

July 2010

Screening upland rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica) genotypes for salt-tolerance using multivariate cluster analysis

Seedlings of thirteen genotypes of rice were photoautotrophically grown on MS medium and subsequently exposed to 0 (control) or 200 mM NaCl (salt stress) for 14 days. Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb) and total carotenoids (Cx+c), in the salt stressed leaves of all genotypes decreased significantly, but the extent of the decrease varied among different genotypes. Maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII)...

Author(s): Suriyan Cha-um, Muhammad Ashraf, and Chalermpol Kirdmanee

July 2010

Identification of 21 microRNAs in maize and their differential expression under drought stress

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, non-coding regulatory RNAs that regulate gene expression by guiding target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. The negative regulation of miRNAs has been found in response to stress in Arabidopsis, rice and other plants. The sequence of the maize genome has been completed very recently; however, only a few maize miRNAs have been identified and deposited in the miRNA...

Author(s): Chen Xu, Ruo-Fei Yang, Wan-Chen Li and Feng-Ling Fu

July 2010

Effectiveness of combined thermophilic composting and vermicomposting on biodegradation and sanitization of mixtures of dairy manure and waste paper

Thermophilic composting is commonly used for the treatment of organic wastes or for production of organic/natural fertilizers. Vermicomposting (V) is also increasingly becoming popular. These two techniques have their inherent advantages and disadvantages. In this study, vermicomposting and a combination of thermophilic composting and vermicomposting were compared as ways of sanitizing and biodegrading dairy...

Author(s): L. T. Mupondi, P. N. S. Mnkeni and P. Muchaonyerwa

July 2010

A study on the chopping and mixing of cotton stalks with soil

This study examined the methods adopted in Turkey to remove cotton stalks remaining in the field after the cotton harvest and quantified the efficiency of different mechanized stalk choppers. In this study, the performance of three different types of cotton stalk choppers was assessed (chain-type, splined-type and vertical-blade rotating dredge). Field experiments were conducted with each type to determine the...

Author(s): Cevdet Sağlam, Ferda Kaplan and Refik Polat

July 2010

Incidence and pathogenicity profile of Listeria sp. isolated from food and environmental samples in Nsukka, Nigeria

Samples of beef, pork, goat meat, poultry, fish and vegetables purchased from a local market located in Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria were examined for the presence of Listeria species. Surface swab samples taken from butchers’ tables as well as soil samples from the field where cows and pigs were kept before slaughter were examined. Listeria species were isolated from all samples except the...

Author(s): M. A. C. Ikeh, S. K. C. Obi, D. N. Ezeasor, I. M. Ezeonu and A. N. Moneke

July 2010

Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss in Ivriz Dam Lake, Turkey

Total fatty acid compositions and seasonal variations of Oncorhynchus mykiss inIvriz Dam Lake, Turkey were investigated using gas chromatographic method. A total of 38 different fatty acids were determined in the fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be higher than saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in all seasons. Oleic...

Author(s): Leyla Kalyoncu, Yucel Yaman and Abdurrahman Aktumsek

July 2010

Extraction of uricase from Candida utilis by applying polyethylene glycol (PEG)/ NH4)2SO4 aqueous two-phase system

The purification of uricase from Candida utilis was performed by applying aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). Based on polyethylene glycols (PEG)/(NH4)2SO4ATPSs, purification fold and recovery rate were demonstrated to influence the system parameters, such as PEG molecular mass, PEG concentration, ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] concentration, inorganic concentration, pH and additional amount of crude...

Author(s): Yong Chen, Yan-fa Meng, Jin-bao Tang, Tong-yi Sun, Feng-xiang Sun and Shu-juan Liang

July 2010

The effects of Kaempferia parviflora on anti-internalization activity of Helicobacter pylori to HEp-2 cells

Helicobacter pylori, an etiological agent of active chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer disease, is now considered to be an invasive enteropathogen. Anti-adhesion and anti-internalization are new strategies for prevention and treatment of bacterial infection including the alternative of medicinal plants. In this study, four parts ofKaempferia parviflora’s extracts composing of volatile oil, hexane, ethyl acetate...

Author(s): Nuntaree Chaichanawongsaroj, Sumet Amonyingcharoen, Eakarin Saifahand Yong Poovorawan

July 2010

In vitro response from cotyledon and hypocotyls explants in tomato by inducing 6-benzylaminopurine

Differential response of tomato was evaluated by hypocotyls and cotyledon explants on 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) containing MS media. Among the four levels (0, 1, 2 and 4 mg/l) of BAP employed in Murashige and Skoog (MS) media, 2.0 mg/l BAP was found superior in growth traits (number of shoots/explants and shoot length) and cultivars. No significant difference was noticed between cotyledon and hypocotyls...

Author(s): Abd-almajid Nasher Mohamed, Mohd Razi Ismail and Mohamed Hasan Rahman

July 2010

Impact of different levels of dietary myo-inositol on the growth performance, histological structure of gonads and liver of red tilapia reared in brackish water

A 120 day growth trial was conducted to evaluate the dietary inositol using diets (25.7% crude protein pelleted diet). These diets were formulated to contain graded levels of supplemental myo-inositol (MI) (0, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg). Four conical bottom fiberglass tanks (500 L) were used and stocked with fifty red tilapia in each tank with initial weight (average weight) of 1.82 g ± 0.03). Fishes were fed twice...

Author(s): M. I. Zaki, A. M. Helal, F. H. Farrag, F. F. M. Khalil and M. M. A. Rafaey

July 2010

Failure of experimental acute intra-gastric gas and fluid accumulation to produce gastric dilatation-volvulus in unanaesthetized dogs

The stomachs of 6 mongrel dogs were cannulated with a simple assemblage of cannula and sphygmomanometer for direct and rapid administration of gas and combination of gas and fluid, respectively, to investigate the role of intra-gastric accumulation of gas and fluid in the stomach in development of acute gastric dilatation-volvulus in the animals. In all the experiments, the stomach of each dog was fully distended at a...

Author(s): J. F. Akinrinmade and A. I. Idowu

July 2010

Predictions of semen production in ram using phenotypic traits by artificial neural network

Concentration of semen production is the most important fertility trait in ram and dimension of testis is a good criterion for identifying the quantity of semen production. Thus, prediction of that trait has important beneficial effect on the timely identification of genetically superior animals. Artificial neural network (ANN) system can be used as a decision making support system in ram industry as well as other...

Author(s): Ali Ahmad Alaw Qotbi, Poorya Hossein Nia, Alireza Seidavi and Shahrokh Ghovvati