African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12212

Table of Content: 6 September 2010; 9(36)

September 2010

Microbiological and health related perspectives of geophagia: An overview

Geophagia, which refers to the deliberate eating of soil, is considered to be a deviant eating disorder, a sequel to poverty and famine but could also be observed in the absence of hunger and in both scenarios may be associated with high degree of mortality and morbidity. The phenomenon has been reported to be common among pregnant women, lactating women, school children and people with psychiatric disorders. The...

Author(s): M.A. Bisi-Johnson , , C.L. Obi and G.E. Ekosse

September 2010

Phylogenetics of HCV: Recent advances

Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a virus present in human population from indefinite time period, has affected millions of people globally, by causing liver infection which in majority of cases leads to chronicity, cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).  The disease burden is expected to increase in the developing and under developed world in future. The distribution of HCV genotypes is...

Author(s): Nazish Bostan, Maleeha Maria Mustafa, Waseem Safdar, Qamar Javed and Tariq Mahmood

September 2010

Genetic variation in a population of Bipolaris oryzae based on RAPD-PCR in north of Iran

Isolates of Bipolaris oryzae were analysed by RAPD techniques to determine the amount of intraspecific genetic variability. In order to do RAPD-PCR, seven primers were applied. At first, DNA of all isolates was isolated, and then DNA was amplified in thermocycler by using seven primers at a thermal program. As the result, segments of DNA by the size of 200 - 300 bp were produced. Cluster analysis using UPGMA...

Author(s): Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh and Maesomeh Anvari

September 2010

A simple, rapid and efficient method of isolating DNA from Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.)

Total DNA of Chokanan mango (Mangifera indica L.) was extracted from the leaf for the construction of total genomic library. However, the quality of the extracted DNA was often compromised by the presence of secondary metabolites, thus interfering with the analytical applications. Improvement on the quality of the extracted DNA was achieved through the optimization of leaf harvesting stage and modification on the...

Author(s): Kit, Y. S. and Chandran, S.

September 2010

Seroepidemiological study of toxoplasmosis in childbearing age women in Bushehr City, south west of Iran in 2009

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by an intracellular protozoan,Toxoplasma gondii and congenital form is one of the most important clinical aspects of this disease. Seroepidemiological studies among women of childbearing age could provide appropriate approaches to design prevention measures to prevent congenital Toxoplasmosis. In this study, 303 blood samples were collected from women of...

Author(s): Moradali Fouladvand, Afshin Barazesh, Keivan Zandi, Behrouz Naeimi and Saeed Tajbakhsh

September 2010

Monechma ciliatum methanolic extract regulates low density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase genes expression in HepG2 cells

Monechma ciliatum methanolic extract (MCME) obtained from Monechma ciliatumseedcake showed high total phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity. The regulatory effects of MCME at 10, 20 and 50 µg/ml on low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) were investigated in human HepG2 cell line using quantitative real-time polymerase...

Author(s): Abdalbasit Adam Mariod, Ghanya AL-Naqeb, and Maznah Ismail,

September 2010

Mating system parameters in Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) Sw. based on RAPD markers

This study investigated the mating systems in Stylosanthes guianensis, an important tropical forage legume. Twelve progenies were analyzed with 21 polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) loci. The mating parameters estimated using the mixed mating model showed that this population practices a mixture of selfing (61.4%) and out-crossing (38.6%) for reproduction. The results also indicated that the...

Author(s): Lucimara Chiari, Rosangela Maria Simeão Resende and Elizangela Tieko Matida

September 2010

Optimization of embryogenic-callus induction and embryogenesis of Glycyrrhiza glabra

Glabridin is a major biologically active flavonoid isolated specifically from the root ofGlycyrrhiza glabra, which has many pharmacological activities. The production of the wild G. glabra was sharply decreased due to immoderate and ruinous utilization. In vitro regeneration via somatic embryogenesis is important for clonal propagation and genetic transformation. In this paper, factors...

Author(s): Chunhua Fu#, Cheng Lei,#, Lu Gan, Maoteng Li,YingYang and Longjiang Yu

September 2010

Efficient plant regeneration from leaf explants of Solanum americanum

A very efficient system for direct plant regeneration from in vitro–derived leaf explants of Solanum americanum was developed. S. americanum is a tropical plant with important medical properties. The in vitro procedure that was established consists of (i) induction of shoots from leaf tissue, (ii) elongation of shoots, and (iii) rooting of plantlets. The induction of shoots was...

Author(s): Aileen O’Connor-Sánchez, Ángel V. Domínguez-May, Miguel A. Keb-Llanes, Tomás A. González-Estrada and Yuri J. Peña–Ramírez

September 2010

Evaluation of bio-agent formulations to control Fusarium wilt of tomato

The ED50 value of antagonistic substance from Chaetomium globosum N0802 extracted with hexane was 157 µg/ml. This gave the highest inhibition of conidial production of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causing tomato wilt var Sida. Crude hexane from Chaetomium lucknowense CLT and crude methanol fromTrichoderma harzianum PC01 gave ED50 values of...

Author(s): C. Charoenporn, S. Kanokmedhakul, F. C. Lin, S. Poeaim and K. Soytong

September 2010

Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of pepper seedling

Humic acid is a commercial product that contains many elements which improve the soil fertility and increase the availability of nutrient elements. It consequently affects plant growth and yield and ameliorates the deleterious effects of salt stress. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of humic acids and phosphorus on growth and nutrient content of pepper seedlings (cv. Demre) grown under moderate...

Author(s): K. Mesut Çimrin, Önder Türkmen, Metin Turan and Burcu Tuncer

September 2010

Virus free seed potato production through sprout cutting technique under net-house

In order to evaluate the performance of sprout cutting for seed potato production against virus infection, a study was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural Development Corporation (BADC) Foundation Seed Potato Production Farm, Domar, Nilphamary, Bangladesh in 2005 - 2006. Sprout cut seedlings were grown under three production practices viz. Net-house practice, BADC practice and farmers’ practice. Sprout cutting...

Author(s): M. R. Karim, M. M. Hanafi, S. M. Shahidullah, A. H. M. A. Rahman, A. M. Akanda and A. Khair

September 2010

Effect of an anti-juvenile hormone agent (Precocene I) on Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) development and reproduction

Sunn pest (Eurygaster integriceps Put.) (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) is a serious pest of cereals causing severe quantitative and qualitative damage by feeding on leaves, stems and grains. Pesticide application is the main method of Sunn pest control, thus a search for developing new control methods is needed to diminish reliance on insecticides for insect control. So in the current study, the effect of an...

Author(s): Azam Amiri and Ali R. Bandani

September 2010

A potato NOA gene increased salinity tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

The purpose of this study is to produce recombinant StNOA1 in transgenic plants and to test its potential role in plant salt stress responses. The newly clonedStNOA1 gene from Solanum tuberosum L. was inserted into AtnOA1 mutant plant genome by Agrobaterium-mediated floral dip method. Transgene integration was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in 4 different lines of...

Author(s): B. Zhang, , H. Q. Wang, B. L. Liu, J. Liu, , X. Wang, , Q. Liu,  and H. G. Zhang

September 2010

Genome mapping in F1 population of crossbred Italia and Mercan grape varieties: Establishment of AFLP and SSR linkage groups towards significant morphological characters and fungal diseases

This research aims at the establishment of a genome map for F1 population developed by crossbreeding of Italia and Mercan grape varieties. A co-dominant marker SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) and a dominant marker AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) were used in the study. Double-pseudotestcross mapping technique was used for genome mapping. The study analyzed 60 plants selected from the F1 population...

Author(s): Burçak İşçi, Ahmet Altındişli, Gökhan Söylemezoğlu and Cengiz Özer

September 2010

Physico-chemical analysis and nutrient retention of mixed-culture fungal fermented mango (Mangifera indica) kernel cake in cockerels

The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of mixed-culture fungal fermented mango (Mangifera indica) kernel cake (MKC) as chicken feed ingredient. Four fungi namely Rhizopus oligosporus (Ro), Aspergillus niger (An), Rhizopus stolonifer (Rs) and Penicillium chrysogenum (Pc) were mixed as starter inoculums to ferment MKC. Eight treatments consisting of RoAn fermented MKC...

Author(s): R. M. O. Kayode, A. Sani and F. L. Kolawole

September 2010

The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat (Triticum durum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a worldwide nutritional problem resulting in significant reduction in crop yields. It is often observed in calcareous soils and also after heavy doses of phosphorus (P) fertiliser applications, the latter being termed P-induced Zn deficiency. For management purposes, it is important to understand how crops with different root architecture would respond to P-induced Zn deficiency. This glasshouse...

Author(s): Ilhan Kizilgoz and Erdal Sakin

September 2010

Ultrastructures of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and its damage in huanglongbing (HLB) infected citrus

Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is not cultured in media and there is insufficient information on the movement of the pathogen in citrus plants. Samples were collected from infected citrus plants grown in Ulu Pakar, Terengganu, Malaysia and they show typical symptoms of the huanglongbing (HLB) disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primer pairs of OI1 and OI2c was conducted to assess the presence...

Author(s): Hajivand Shokrollah, Thohirah Lee Abdullah, Kamaruzaman Sijam and Siti Nor Akmar Abdullah

September 2010

Effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield and quality of drip-irrigated apricot trees

This study was conducted during five growing seasons from 2004 to 2008 to investigate effects of different irrigation regimes on vegetative growth, fruit yield and quality of Salak apricot trees in semi-arid climatic conditions. There were six irrigation treatments, five of which (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) were based on adjustment coefficients of class A pan evaporation (0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25 and 1.50). The...

Author(s): Sebahattin Kaya, Salih Evren, Erdal Dasci, M. Cemal Adiguzel and Hasbi Yilmaz

September 2010

OsAPX4 gene response to several environmental stresses in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Expression of the gene, OsAPX4, coding for ascorbate peroxidase in leaves and roots of rice were induced by abiotic stresses, such as NaCl, NaHCO3 and Na2CO3, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, H2O2, CuCl2. Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) over-expressing ascorbate peroxidase exhibited greater tolerance to NaCl and NaHCO3 and transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing OsAPX4 had a greater salt tolerance...

Author(s): Qingjie Guan, Dexi Xia and Shenkui Liu

September 2010

The influence of nonionic surfactant Brij 30 on biodegradation of toluene in a biofilter

The influence of nonionic surfactant Brij 30 on toluene dissolved in the water phase and biodegradation kinetic behaviors of toluene in a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/peat/KNO3/ (granular activated carbon) GAC composite bead biofilter were investigated. The toluene dissolved in the water phase was enhanced by the addition of surfactant into the aqueous solution and the maximum amount of toluene dissolved in the water phase...

Author(s): Wu-Chung Chan and Hong-Yuan You

September 2010

Physico-chemical analysis of fish pond water in Okada and its environs, Nigeria

Water samples were collected from concrete and earthen fish ponds in different locations in Okada and its environs, Edo State, Nigeria. Twenty-one different physiochemical parameters were analyzed using standard laboratory methods and procedures. In the present study, the values of the parameters ranged from pH 6.75 - 7.10, conductivity 0.012 - 0.017 mS/cm, TDS 22 - 906 mg/l, COD 162 - 397 mg/l, turbidity (NTU) 5 -170,...

Author(s): J. E. Ehiagbonare and Y. O. Ogunrinde

September 2010

Physicochemical characteristics of geophagic clayey soils from South Africa and Swaziland

Physicochemical properties of geophagic clayey soils from South Africa and Swaziland were determined in order to appreciate their capability to perform the functions for which they are consumed and possible consequences of the practice in humans. Tests conducted included colour, texture, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), water retention capacity (WRC), organic matter (OM) content and cation exchange capacity (CEC)....

Author(s): V. M. Ngole, G. E. Ekosse, L. de Jager and S. P. Songca

September 2010

Anti-bacterial profile of some beers and their effect on some selected pathogens

  The investigation of the therapeutic properties of some beers, allow us to study their anti-bacterial profile against food born diseases caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphilococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus subtilis. The results obtained show that beers B2 and B3 had no anti-bacterial activity on the tested bacteria, whereas, beer B1 had...

Author(s): H. C. Edima, L. N. Tatsadjieu, C. M. F. Mbofung and F-X Etoa

September 2010

Proximate composition and functional properties of pra (Elateriospermun tapos Blume) seed flour

The proximate composition and functional properties of flour produced from pra (Elateriospermum tapos Blume) seed were investigated using standard method. The whole seeds were sorted, de-shelled, dried, milled and sieved to produce flour. The flour contained considerable amounts of protein (16.10%), carbohydrate (25.36%) and fat (36.49%). The fatty acid composition showed that the flour was high in unsaturated...

Author(s): Anchan Choonhahirun

September 2010

Monosodium glutamate: Potentials at inducing prostate pathologies in male Wistar rats

The potential of varying doses of monosodium glutamate (MSG) at altering the functional capacity of the prostate, and the possible role of increasing the concentration of either MSG or distilled water (DW) on such alteration were examined. To achieve these, adult male Wistar rats were treated daily and orally with MSG (5 and 10 mg/kg of body weight (BW)) and DW (1 and 2 ml/kg BW). After 28 days of treatment, the tested...

Author(s): Egbuonu, A. C. C., Ejikeme, P. M. and Obasi, L. N.

September 2010

Separation and determination of the bioactivity of oosporein from Chaetomium cupreum

Many plants have devised methods of protecting themselves; one of such methods is the use of endophytic fungi. The antagonistic mechanism by endophytic fungi has rarely been revealed. This study investigated Chaetomium cupreum from Macleaya cordata (Willd.) R.Br Herb, which was identified by analysis of morphological characteristics and 28S rDNA sequence. The crystal isolated from culture...

Author(s): Bi-Zeng Mao#, Chao Huang#, Guan-Mei Yang, Yu-Zhe Chen and Shao-Yuan Chen

September 2010

Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Helicobacter pylori isolates from Iran

Helicobacter pylori, a gram negative bacterium is capable of being resistant to a wide spectrum of antimicrobial drugs. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori strains differs amongst distinct geographical areas and has increased worldwide. Therefore, information concerning the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant H. pylori strains is important in predicting therapeutic response. In...

Author(s): M. Sirous, Jalil F. Mehrabadi, N. E. Daryani, S. Eshraghi, S. Hajikhani and M. H. Shirazi

September 2010

Antibacterial effect of Jordanian propolis and isolated flavonoids against human pathogenic bacteria

Propolis is a natural product widely consumed in folk medicine. The present study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial activity of Jordanian propolis, collected from two locations with two different dominant floras (Type1; Pine trees and Type ll; Oak trees). Zones of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus...

Author(s): Rula M. Darwish, Ra&#;ed J. Abu Fares, Musa H. Abu Zarga and Ibrahim K. Nazer

September 2010

Conditions for the differentiation of melanocyte-precursor cells from human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells

The loss of skin pigmentation can induce compromised cutaneous immunity, which can result in conditions such as vitiligo. In this study, we evaluated various agents that are able to induce the differentiation of stem cells into melanocytes. We found that a mixture of forskolin (FK), stem cell factor (SCF) and endothelin-3 (EDN-3) induced melanocyte-like morphology in human cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem...

Author(s): Jienny Lee, Jongsung Lee, Kyungbaeg Roh, Myeong-Ok Kim, Ju-Duck Kim and Deokhoon Park

September 2010

Gastrodia elata Blume extract ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue

To investigate the effect of Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB) extract on exercise-induced fatigue recovery, 120 mice were divided at random into four experimental groups (3 GEB administered groups and the normal control group). The normal control group were gavaged with distilled water and the GEB administered groups were gavaged with GEB extract (1000, 500 and 200 mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. The effect of...

Author(s): Wang Zhaobao and Yan Bing

September 2010

Effect of dietary cation-anion balance on milk production and blood mineral of Holstein cows during the last two months of pregnancy

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three diets with different cation-anion differences ((DCAD: mEq[(Na + K) − (Cl + S)]/100 g of dry matter)) in far-off and close-up period, on milk production and blood mineral of Holstein cows. Eighteen pregnant cows (220 - 225 d) were fed a base diet with three DCAD (+13 (control), 0, −13/100 g dry matter) for 60 ± 5 days. Control diet consisted of...

Author(s): M. Ganjkhanlou, A. Nikkhah and A. Zali

September 2010

Relationship of fat-tail and body measurements with some economic important traits in fat-tail Makoei breed of Iranian sheep

This research seeks to predict in vivo carcass composition of lambs. A total of 576 Makoei fat-tailed lambs were used. Lambs were 6-7 months fold and weighed about 15.1 - 41.4 kg. Measurements included body weight, upper, middle and lower tail-depth and width, upper, middle, lower tail and neck circumference, right, middle and left tail-length, body length, whither height, abdominal and heart girth. Having...

Author(s): A. H. Khaltabadi Farahani, H. Moradi Shahrbabak, M. Moradi Shahrbabakand H. Mehrabani Yeganeh

September 2010

Genetic variations between indigenous fat-tailed sheep populations

Blood samples were collected from a total 816 sheep of both sexes in three Iranian fat-tailed breeds (Sangsari, Makoei, indigenous sheep on firoozkouh mountain) serum, plasma and erythrocyte were separated and were frozen at -20°C. Variation in their blood proteins, albumin, haemoglobin and transferrin were examined to characterize the breeds and to obtain genetic relationship among them. Only transferrin was...

Author(s): H. Moradi Shahrbabak, A. H. Khaltabadi Farahani, M. Moradi Shahrbabakand H. Mehrabani Yeganeh

September 2010

Association between A59V polymorphism in exon 3 of leptin gene and reproduction traits in cows of Iranian Holstein

We used the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique to screen for DNA polymorphisms of the leptin gene in 255 cows of Iranian Holstein. Amplified region is located in exon 3 of leptin gene. The genomic bovine leptin sequences, which consist of three exons, were obtained from GeneBank (Accession number U50365). Genotype frequencies in all herds were 0.588, 0.388 and 0.024...

Author(s): H. Yazdani, H. R. Rahmani, M. A. Edris and E. Dirandeh