African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12212

Table of Content: 8 November 2010; 9(45)

November 2010

RNAi technology extends its reach: Engineering plant resistance against harmful eukaryotes

  RNA interference (RNAi) is a homology-dependent gene silencing technology that is initiated by double stranded RNA (dsRNA). It has emerged as a genetic tool for engineering plants resistance against prokaryotic pathogens such as virus and bacteria. Recent studies broaden the role of RNAi, and many successful examples have described the application of RNAi for engineering plant resistance against a range of...

Author(s):   Jun-Hai Niu, , Heng Jian, Jian-Mei Xu, Yang-Dong Guo and Qian Liu  

November 2010

The potential of developing an in vitro method for propagating Strelitziaceae

  Strelitzia spp. are highly valued as cut flowers and are of significant commercial value. Despite high demands, they have not been widely spread due to production constraints and are one of the few important cut flower plants for which no uniform cultivars are available. The conventional methods of propagation are very slow due to the plants low rate of multiplication. Large scale propagation and cloning...

Author(s):   J. J. North, P. A. Ndakidemi and C.P. Laubscher  

November 2010

Identification of genes induced by salt stress from Medicago truncatula L. seedlings

  In order to identify genes induced during the salt stress response in barrel medic (Medicago truncatula L) seedlings, a cDNA library by salt stress was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Total RNA from 15-day-old seedlings was used as a ‘driver’, and total RNA from seedlings induced by salt was used as a ‘tester’. One hundred and sixty nine clones...

Author(s):   Junmei Kang, Weiwei Xie, Yan Sun, Qingchuan Yang and Mingsheng Wu  

November 2010

Study of total seed storage protein in indigenous Brassica species based on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)

  Genetic diversity was studied in 234 accessions of locally collected Brassicaspecies for total seed protein content through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). These accessions were collected from different locations of Pakistan. After the study of these accessions on SDS-PAGE, 28 reproducible bands were used for cluster analysis and with the help of these bands, genetic...

Author(s):   Naushad Ali Turi, Farhatullah, M. Ashiq Rabbani, Naqib Ullah Khan, M.Akmal, Zahida Hassan Pervaiz and M.Umair Aslam  

November 2010

Molecular cloning and characterization of an actin-depolymerizing factor gene in Hevea brasiliensis

  Actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) plays important roles in regulating actin dynamics by maintaining the optimum equilibrium between unpolymerized actin molecules and assembled actin filaments in different cellular processes. In this study, the first ADF gene in Hevea brasiliensis designated as HbADF, was isolated. The HbADFcontained an open reading frame (ORF) encoding 139 amino acids. The...

Author(s): Zhi Deng, Xianghong Liu,, Chunliu Chen, Weimin Tian, Zhihui Xia and Dejun Li,

November 2010

Different apoptotic responses to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in spleen and liver

  The purpose of this study is to determine whether the apoptotic responses toPlasmodium chabaudi malaria in spleen and liver via mRNA expression of three genes involved in apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2 and Caspase-3) are similar or not and to detect if these genes could be a good marker for apoptosis due to infection with P. chabaudi of female C57BL/6 mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally (ip) with...

Author(s): Saad Alkahtani

November 2010

Genetic diversity in Balkhi, Hashtnagri and Michni sheep populations using SSR markers

  Morphological and genetic diversity among the three neighboring sheep breeds native to Central valley of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan) was investigated. A total number of 138 non relative individuals of Balkhi (46), Hashtnagri (44) and Michni (48) was sampled for morphological as well as molecular characters using 31 ovine specific SSR markers. Morphological observations and morphometric traits...

Author(s):   Muhammad Ibrahim, Sohail Ahmad, Zahoor Ahmad Swati and Muhammad Sajjad Khan  

November 2010

Rapid detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci by multiplex PCR

  A rapid and sensitive method for excluding the presence of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in clinical samples was developed. The combination of MRSA detection by mecA coaA PCR with prior enrichment in selective broth was tested for 300 swabs. PCR identified 26 MRSA-positive samples, in concordance with conventional methods.   Key words: Staphylococcus...

Author(s):   Mohammad Reza Safari Motlagh and Maesumeh Anvari  

November 2010

Study on genetic diversity of some Iranian Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) cultivars using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers: A comparative study

  Iran has a rich and diverse pistachio germplasm and thereby, the diversity and number of Iranian pistachio cultivars is unique in the world. In this study, 31 pistachio cultivars and genotypes were characterized by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), inter sequence repeat (ISSR) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The general dendrogram constructed using the combined data of the three...

Author(s): Amin Baghizadeh, Shahram Noroozi and Mokhtar Jalali Javaran  

November 2010

Evaluation of the detection techniques of toxigenic Aspergillus isolates

  Aflatoxins are difuranocoumarin derivatives produced by some Aspergillus species through a polyketide pathway. Mycotoxins are considered hazardous and there is a need for accurate detection of each toxin. Several screening methods for direct visual determination of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) production have been reported. These methods rely on using different types of coconut culture media,...

Author(s):   Yazdani, D., Zainal Abidin, M. A., Tan, Y. H. and Kamaruzaman, S.  

November 2010

Predicting the relationship between molecular marker heterozygosity and hybrid performance using RAPD markers in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  Successful prediction of heterosis and performance of F1-hybrids from genetic similarity of their parents based on molecular markers has been reported in various crops. Estimation of genetic diversity and distance among various rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes and the correlation between genetic distance (GD) and hybrid performance would determine breeding strategies, define heterotic groups and predict...

Author(s):   Immanuel Selvaraj, Pothiraj Nagarajan, Kattiyanan Thiyagarajan and Maruddapan Bharathi.  

November 2010

Reduced dosages of atrazine and narrow rows can provide adequate weed control in smallholder irrigated maize (Zea mays L.) production in South Africa

  An on-farm experiment was conducted in Zanyokwe irrigation scheme to investigate the effects of row spacing (45 and 90 cm) and atrazine dosage (33, 67 and 100% of the label recommended dosage) on weed density and biomass and on maize yield. Overall percent kill of weeds increased with increase in atrazine dosage and with reduction in row spacing. Percent kill varied according to weed species with a 100% kill...

Author(s):   M. Fanadzo, C. Chiduza and P. N. S. Mnkeni  

November 2010

Interaction of acetamiprid with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from activated sludge: A fluorescence study

  Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are important components of activated sludge and it plays an important role in removing pollutants. The interaction between EPS and organic pollutants is still little known. In the present study, the interaction of soluble/bound EPS with acetamiprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, was investigated using the three-dimensional excitation–emission matrix (EEM)...

Author(s):   Wenjuan Song, Guijin Mu, Daoyong Zhang and Xiangliang Pan  

November 2010

Climatic factors interference with the occurrence of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae in cultivated soil

  Description of method and recommendation of laboratory and field procedures for the isolation of soil borne entomopathogenic fungi (specifically Beauveria bassianaand Metarhizium anisopliae) is presented. Baiting technique method was used for screening of occurrence of indigenous populations of entomopathogenic fungi. Totally, 2068 alive greater wax moth larvae (Galleria...

Author(s): Khalid A. Hussein, Mohamed A. A. Abdel-Rahman, Ahmed Y. Abdel-Mallek, Saad S. El-Maraghy and Jin Ho Joo

November 2010

Comparative studies on inducers in the production of naringinase from Aspergillus niger MTCC 1344

  This research provides detailed systematic study of the effect of different inducers (hesperidin, naringenin, naringin, rhamnose and rutin) in naringinase production by Aspergillus niger MTCC 1344. Cultures were carried out in shake flasks and they produce extracellular naringinase in a complex (molasses, peptone and salts) medium. The optimized concentration (%) of naringin, rhamnose,...

Author(s): V. Vinoth Kumar

November 2010

Calcium chloride improve ethanol production in recombinant Zymomonas mobilis

  The T7-expression system has been very useful for protein expression inEscherichia coli. Here, a T7-expression transposon was constructed, which allowed simple construction of T7-expression Zymomonas mobilis. This transposon contained the T7 RNA polymerase being driven by the gap promoter from Z. mobilis. The T7-expression fadK genomes were introduced into Z....

Author(s):   Yimei Zeng, Na Wei, Min Lou, Lie Fu, Ping Xiong and Haoyong Wang  

November 2010

Comparison of supercritical and near-critical carbon dioxide extraction of carotenoid enriched wheat bran oil

  Supercritical and near-critical carbon dioxide (CO2) extraction were carried out to extract oil from wheat bran. The extraction temperatures for supercritical and near-critical CO2 were 35 - 45°C and 25 - 30°C, respectively. The applied pressure was ranging from 10 to 30 MPa for both supercritical and near-critical CO2 extraction. The extraction was performed in a semi batch process with a...

Author(s):   Go-Woon Jung, Md. Salim Uddin, Kyung-Tae Kwon and Byung-Soo Chun  

November 2010

Antibacterial activity of water-phase extracts from bamboo shavings against food spoilage microorganisms

  Water-phase extract of bamboo shavings (WEBS), by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, was evaluated for its antimicrobial action against the range of food borne and food spoilage pathogens using agar disc diffusion assay in nutrient agar and Czapek Dox Agar media. The WEBS exhibited antimicrobial activity againstStaphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus...

Author(s):   Jianyou Zhang, , Jinyan Gong, Yuting Ding ,Baiyi Lu, Xiaoqin Wu and Ying Zhang  

November 2010

Biochemical evaluation of aestivation and starvation in two snail species

  There is resurgence in incidence of schistosomiasis in Nigeria with attendant socio-economic and health impact. The agents transmitting this disease are theBulinus snails which employ aestivation to survive conditions of unfavourable weather such as lack of food and water. The mechanism of aestivation under aridity and drought is not clear. This study therefore investigated the effects of aestivation and...

Author(s):   Akande, I. S., Odetola, A. A., Samuel, T. A. and Okolie, P.N.  

November 2010

Purification and characterization of 60 kD lipase linked with chaperonin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa BN-1

  An extracellular lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa BN-1 was purified to 42.99 fold. N-terminal sequence of purified enzyme was AAKEVKFGDS identical to sequence of a chaperonin and enzyme may be linked to it.  It has an estimated molecular weight of 60 kD, while temperature and pH optima were 37°C and 8.0, respectively. The enzyme obtained has considerable thermostability retaining 70% of...

Author(s):   Muhammad Noman Syed, Samina Iqbal, Saeeda Bano, Abdul Basit Khan, Shah Ali-ul-Qader and Abid Azhar  

November 2010

Antimicrobial activity of extracts of leaves of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms

  The aim of the experiment was to investigate the phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activity of extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms used in folklore medicine in order to authenticate some of its therapeutic claims. The antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the leaves of P. kotschyi was investigated...

Author(s):   R. G. Ayo, O. T. Audu, G. I. Ndukwe and A. M. Ogunshola  

November 2010

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the plant Heliotropium strigosum

  Heliotropium strigosum is an important medicinal plant and belongs to the Boraginaceae family. Traditionally, this plant is used as laxative and diuretic. The juice of the plant is used to treat gum boils, sore eyes and also as a cure for stings of nettles, insects and snake bites. The current study was carried out to evaluate the medicinal properties of this plant. The plant was collected from...

Author(s):   Sajid Hussain, Muhammad Jamil, Farhat Ullah, Arifullah Khan, Farman Ullah, Muhammad Arfan, Shabir Ahmad and Lubna Khatoon  

November 2010

Antioxidant properties of Ximenia americana

  Ximenia americana, a medicinal plant, was evaluated for free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. The extracts from the stem bark was obtained using methanol. The methanol portion was again fractionated into flavonoid and saponnin portions. The antioxidant activity of the portions was assessed by the 2, 2 diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The flavonoid portion revealed a significant (P...

Author(s):   Maikai, V. A., Kobo, P. I. and Maikai, B. V. O.  

November 2010

Reproductive seasonality and maturation of the sergestid shrimp, Acetes japonicus (Decapoda: Sergestidae) in coastal waters of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia

  Sex ratio, length at first maturity and spawning season of the sergestid shrimp (Acetes japonicus) were investigated between April 2006 and March 2007 in coastal waters of Klebang Besar, Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia. Klebang Besar waters are one of the main fishing grounds for A. japonicus in the Peninsular Malaysia. The overall annual sex ratio was found to be 1:1.46 (males: females). The spawning...

Author(s): S. M. Nurul Amin, A. Arshad, S. S. Siraj and S. B. Japar  

November 2010

Impact of sublethal concentration of triazophos on regulation of protein metabolism in the fish Channa punctatus (Bloch)

  The fresh water fish is an important human food source in India and the fish is constantly exposed to pesticides which are used extensively to control agricultural pests. Insecticide triazophos organophosphates (OP) altered protein metabolism in the liver, brain and kidney tissues of the fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). The total protein when exposed to different time periods decreased and free amino...

Author(s):   Abdul Naveed, P. Venkateshwarlu and C. Janaiah  

November 2010

A DHHC-type zinc finger protein gene regulates shoot branching in Arabidopsis

  Formation of plant architecture is a complicated biological phenomenon and is influenced by a variety of factors such as genotype, hormone, environment and nutrition. In this study, an activation-tagging mutant, scc10-D (suppressor ofcry1cry2) grown in long-day (16-h light/8-h dark) condition showed enhanced shoot branching. The mRNA expression of six genes adjacent to the T-DNA insertion locus were...

Author(s): Jing Xiang, Jianzhong Lin, Dongying Tang, Bo Zhou, Ming Guo, Reqing He, Xingqun Huang, Xiaoying Zhao and Xuanming Liu  

November 2010

Ethnobotanical survey of plants used for the treatment of constipation within Nkonkobe Municipality of South Africa

  Constipation is the commonest gastrointestinal complaint in most developed and poor countries including South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by herbalists, traditional healers and rural dwellers for the treatment of constipation was conducted in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The study revealed 10 plant species belonging to eight families, namely;...

Author(s):   O. A. Wintola and A. J. Afolayan  

November 2010

The effect of novel probiotic on performance and serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride in broiler chickens

  In this experiment, effects of two phosphate solublizing bacteria as a novel probiotic on performance factors and serum concentrations of cholesterol and triglyceride were investigated. The experiment included 320 Ross broilers from 1 to 49 days of age. Birds were randomly allocated to 4 treatments, with 4 replicates of 20 birds. Treatments include (1) basal diet with no additives (control); (2) basal diet +...

Author(s):   Mehdi Ghaderi Jouybari, Mohammad Ali Malbobi, Mehrdad Irani and Vahid Rezaei Pour  

November 2010

Polymorphism in exon 1 of adiponectin gene and its association with water holding capacity, IMF and abdominal fat in duck

  The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of polymorphism in adiponectin gene on meat quality traits, serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride and abdominal fat of 170 individuals from Cherry Valley duck (CV), Jinding duck (JD) and Hybrid duck (CV × JD) (HB) populations. PCR-SSCP technique was developed to analyze a 230 bp region of the adiponectin gene exon 1. Three...

Author(s):   Yi Yu Zhang, Guo Hong Chen, Qi Xu, Xiu Jun Duan, Hai Bo Zhang, Wen Ming Zhaoand Guo Bo Sun  

November 2010

Purification and characterization of α-amylase produced by Penicillium citrinum HBF62

The extracellular amylase produced by Penicillium citrinum HBF62 was purified 18 folds using starch affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of amylase was estimated to be about 65 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The temperature and pH for optimum activity of the enzyme were 55°C and 5.5, respectively. It was thermostable between 27 and 60°C and retained more than 50% activity after 24 h at these...

Author(s): Kubilay Metin, Öznur Koç, Z. Burcu Bakir Ateşlier and H. Halil Bıyık