African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5182

Full Length Research Paper

Soil bacteriological pollution in pig farm vicinity: Assessment of bacterial dynamics and detection of antimicrobial resistance gene

Dikonketso Shirley-may Matjuda
  • Dikonketso Shirley-may Matjuda
  • Gastro intestinal Microbiology and Biotechnology, Agricultural Research Council- Animal Production Institute, Irene, South Africa.
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Olayinka Ayobami Aiyegoro
  • Olayinka Ayobami Aiyegoro
  • Gastro intestinal Microbiology and Biotechnology, Agricultural Research Council- Animal Production Institute, Irene, South Africa.
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  •  Received: 31 May 2016
  •  Accepted: 05 October 2016
  •  Published: 14 October 2016

Abstract

Emissions of biological contaminants (microbes) from intensive pig farming may cause environmental problems due to lack of proper waste management. This work was conducted to assess bacteriological pollution of soil in pig farm and to detect the presence of antibiotic resistance gene of the prevailing bacteria. Soil samples were collected from March to August 2013. The method included bacterial enumeration (10 -1 to 10 -8) in Nutrient, Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD), Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) and MacConkey agars. Bacteria were identified using API 20E test kit; antibiotic susceptibility test were also determined and identification of resistance gene was carried out using molecular procedures. The viable cells in soil samples ranged from 0 to 2.44 × 1010 cfu/ml. Pseudomonas luteola, Salmonella choleraesuis spp arizonae, Escherichia coli 1, Enterobacter aerogenes, etc. were the predominant isolates. Sixty-seven percent of isolates were resistant to Penicillin G while 79% were resistant to Spectinomycin. The resistance genes detected in most isolates were Van A, InuA, Sul2, blaTEM and Otr B. The results showed that bacterial pathogens isolated from pig farm soil were not only diverse but also possessed multiple Antibiotic Resistance Gene (ARG) and this may have possible dire consequences on the environment and public health.

 

Key words: Microbes, pathogens, pollution, antibiotics, resistance gene, environment.