Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 1845


The use of contingency contracting in educational settings: A review of the literature

Abdullah Alwahbi
  • Abdullah Alwahbi
  • Department of Special Education, Faculty of Education, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 09 March 2020
  •  Accepted: 17 June 2020
  •  Published: 30 June 2020


Respecting individual differences among students and meeting their unique needs may be one of the greatest challenges faced by teachers. When having a heterogeneous group of students, teachers need to consider a variety of instructional methods. The literature details a large number of teaching strategies supported by research findings, and the purpose of this review is to add to the literature by highlighting important information obtained from research on contingency contracting. This information includes the steps for creating and implementing contingency contracting, types of students with whom it can be used, and types of skills and behaviors that can be targeted. The review results show that contingency contracting is an easy-to-implement strategy that can be effectively used to teach both academic and non-academic skills to students with different characteristics. The results also suggest several practical implications for teachers and several areas of research that need further investigation.


Key words: Contingency contracting, behavioral contracts, special education, students with disabilities.