Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 1865

Full Length Research Paper

Karl Pearson’s chi-square tests

Nihan Sölpük Turhan
  • Nihan Sölpük Turhan
  • Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Education, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Foundation University, İstabul, Turkey.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 06 September 2019
  •  Accepted: 05 May 2020
  •  Published: 30 September 2020


Statistical tests have been an important tool for interpreting the results of research correctly. The factors that influence the determination of the statistical test are research purpose, hypothesis and data. Today, statistical tests are used more frequently, and they aim to analyze whether statistical tests are used in accordance with research. For this purpose, frequently used chi-square tests are discussed and in this work and the research hypotheses are examined. The method of this research is qualitative and was developed according to the literature review. In the analysis of the data, it explains what the chi-square test is and the differences in practice according to the research hypothesis. In this study, a comparison was made between goodness of fit, homogeneity and independence chi-square tests. In the findings of the study, the differences between the studies using three different tests are presented according to the population and hypothesis. The differences between the studies using three different tests are presented according to the population, hypothesis, and statistical formulas. This area includes definitions in the literature and applications in the field of educational sciences. Simplified definitions and applications that can be adopted by researchers are presented.


Key words: Chi-square test, goodness of fit, independence, homogeneity.