Journal of
Medicinal Plants Research

  • Abbreviation: J. Med. Plants Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0875
  • DOI: 10.5897/JMPR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 3789

Table of Content: 18 May 2011; 5(10)

May 2011

Chinese traditional medicine matrine: A review of its antitumor activities

Matrine, a major component of the dried roots of Sophora flavescens Ait. (Leguminosae) has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been found that matrine possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects including antitumor activities on a number of cancer cell lines in recent years. However, its spectrum of practical applications is often limited due to the elusive antitumor mechanism....

Author(s): Cao H. W, Zhang H, Chen Z. B., Wu Z. J. and Cui Y. D.

May 2011

Gene therapy: A review article

The introduction of nucleic acids into cells has as a purpose of medical condition or disease. Currently, gene therapy studies a broad range of potential therapeutic interventions, including the body's immune reaction to tumors, new blood vessels in the heart to alleviate heart attacks and to stop HIV-replication in patients with AIDS (Coleman et al., 2003). There is also renewed emphasis on the gene therapy of...

Author(s): Naveed Akhtar, M. Akram, H. M. Asif, Khan Usmanghani, S. M. Ali Shah, Saeed Ahmad Rao, M. Uzair, Ghazala Shaheen and Khalil Ahmad

May 2011

Review on cancer and anticancerous properties of some medicinal plants

Cancer  is  a  dreadful  disease  and  any  practical solution  in  combating  this  disease  is  of  paramount  importance  to  public  health.  Therefore,  besides  the  rationalized  allopathic  drugs,  it  is  worth  evaluating  the  folk  medicine-a ...

Author(s): Harpreet Sharma, Leena Parihar and Pradeep Parihar

May 2011

Medicinal and edible wild fruit plants of Botswana as emerging new crop opportunities

There is a burgeoning need for the promotion of medicinal plants and edible fruit plants as crop in Botswana because these are re-emerging as health aid. Medicinal plants constitute one of the important overlooked areas of international development. They represent a form of biodiversity with the potential to do much good and not just in the healthcare. Indeed, the production and processing of medicinal plants offers the...

Author(s): Daniel M. Motlhanka and Shimane W. Makhabu

May 2011

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) extract impairs the fibrogenic effect of bleomycin in rat lung

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of yarrow (Achillea millefulium) extract on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rat. Hydroalcoholic extract of yarrow was prepared using maceration method. Sprague Dawley rats weighing 180 to 220 g were given single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (7.5 IU/kg) or vehicle (saline). They were treated with different doses of oral yarrow extract (400, 800,...

Author(s): A. A. Hemmati, A. Arzi, A. Adinehvand, N. E. Mostofi, A. R. Mozaffari and A. Jalali,

May 2011

Plant growth and essential oil content and composition of Satureja hortensis L. cv. Saturn in response to calcium carbonate and nitrogen application rates

Satureja hortensis L. (Summer savory) is one of the most important medicinal and spice plants cultivated in many parts of the world. A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of nitrogen (0, 50, 100 and 150 Kg.ha-1) and calcium carbonate (0, 5 and 10 t.ha-1) application rates on the growth and essential oil content and composition of S. hortensis cv. Saturn. Nitrogen (N) fertilization...

Author(s): Hasan Mumivand, Mesbah Babalar, Javad Hadian and Mohammad Fakhr-Tabatabaei

May 2011

Simultaneous determination of five major active depsides in the freeze-dried Dan-Shen injection by LC

To establish an high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the first time to simultaneously determine five major bioactive depsides, salianic acid A , protocatechuic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde, salvianolic acid G and salvianolic acid D in freeze-dried Dan-Shen injection. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Phenomenex Hydro-C18 reserved-phase column (4.6×250...

Author(s): Shou-Jun Jiang, Bin Zhu , Dan-Dan Zhou, Gang-Li Wang, Ying-Xin Wang and Rui-Chao Lin

May 2011

Acute toxicity study of Carica papaya leaf extract in Sprague Dawley rats

Carica papaya (CP) leaves are popularly used as food and have many traditional claims for herbal medicine. The leaf extract have been proven scientifically for their efficacy as wound healing and has protective effects against gastric damage in rats. However, toxicity study of the CP leaf extract is still lacking. The present study is to investigate the acute toxicity of CP leaf extract on Sprague Dawley rats at a...

Author(s): S. Z. Halim, N. R. Abdullah, A. Afzan, B. A. Abdul Rashid, I. Jantan and Z. Ismail

May 2011

Immunomodulatory effects of aqueous extract of Ocimum basilicum (Linn.) and some of its constituents on human immune cells

Ocimum basilicum Linn. (OB) is an edible plant with high concentrations of caffeic (CA) andp-coumaric acid (pCA). In this study, the authors evaluated the immunomodulatory activities of aqueous extract of OB, CA and pCA on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by lymphoproliferation test, and defined the responding cells by flow cytometry, secretion of various cytokines by ELISA, and expression of mRNA...

Author(s): K. D. Tsai, B. R. Lin, D. S. Perng, J. C. Wei, Y. W. Yu and Jaw-Ming Cherng

May 2011

A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant activity of some medicinal plants popularly used in Nepal

Recently, attention has focused on phytochemicals as new sources of natural antioxidants.Therefore, the methanolic crude extracts of 24 commonly used medicinal plants fromJhapa and Illam District, Nepal, were screened for total phenols, flavonoids, and free radical scavenging activity. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). Significant differences in DPPH...

Author(s): Bimal Kumar Ghimire, Eun Soo Seong, Eun Hye Kim, Amal Kumar Ghimeray, Chang Yeon Yu, Bal Krishna Ghimire and Ill Min Chung

May 2011

In vitro chemopreventive activity of an ethyl acetate fraction derived from hot water extract of Orthosiphon stamineus in HepG2 cells

Orthosiphon stamineus (Lamiaceae) is a medicinal plant containing several biologically active components that have chemopreventive activity. To investigate the chemopreventive properties of O. stamineus, we studied the apoptotic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) derived from the hot water extract of O. stamineus leaves on the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HepG2. The...

Author(s): Saliza Anida Salleh, Nor Fadilah Rajab, Noor Rain Abdullah, Zakiah Ismail, Peter Mouatt, Ashley Dowell and Shamsul Muhamad

May 2011

High performance liquid chromatographic analysis of derivatized sapogenin of Asparagus (RP-HPLC analysis of derivatized sapogenin of Asparagus)

RP-HPLC method on C8 column was investigated for derivatized sapogenin, the marker inAsparagus species using water and acetonitrile as mobile phase in isocratic manner at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. The method is sensitive (LOD = 2.02 µg), accurate (average recovery was 98.97%) and precise (intra day variation of RT<0.398, inter day variation of RT<0.982). Quantification was done by UV absorption at...

Author(s): Jagmohan S. Negi, Pramod Singh, Geeta Joshi nee Pant and M. S. M. Rawat

May 2011

Ethnobotanical study of traditional uses of medicinal plants: The flora of caatinga in the community of Cravolândia-BA, Brazil

The Caatinga is one of the most characteristic vegetation types in northeastern Brazil, where there are several endemic species of medicinal plants. Information on the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and their uses would represent a vital role in the discovery of novel products from plants. An ethnobotanical survey about utilization and conservation of medicinal plants was applied to residents of...

Author(s): Jacqueline Araújo Castro, Bruno Portela Brasileiro, Danilo Hottis Lyra, Douglas de Almeida Pereira, James Lima Chaves and Cláudio Lúcio Fernandes Amaral

May 2011

Molecular markers associated with genetic diversity of some medicinal plants in Sinai

The main objective of this work is to fingerprint some selected plant germplasm along the western Red Sea coast of Sinai. Selection is based on the relative economic importance of these plants on the medicinal and pharmaceutical levels. Molecular markers such as RAPD, ISSR and AFLP technologies were used in this work to detect genetic diversity of the selected medicinal plants. The study showed that taxonomical...

Author(s): F.M. El-Domyati, Rania A.A. Younis, S. Edris, A. Mansour, J. Sabir and A. Bahieldin

May 2011

Antioxidant properties, total phenolic, total carotenoid and chlorophyll content of anatomical parts of Hypericum foliosum

Methanolic extracts from eight anatomical parts of the endemic Azorean Hypericum foliosum were evaluated for their potential antioxidant activity and basic classes of bioactive compounds. The results revealed that one single method is not enough to perform an accurate estimation of the antioxidant potential. The reducing power, prevention of β-carotene/linoleic acid system oxidation and...

Author(s): Nuno Rainha, Elisabete Lima, José Baptista and Carolina Rodrigues

May 2011

Phytochemicals screening, DPPH free radical scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitiory activities of Cassia fistula seeds extract

This study investigates antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula seeds extract. The antioxidant potential of this extract was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and xanthine oxidase inhibition assay. The IC50 values were calculated for DPPH and xanthine oxidase assays in order to evaluate the antioxidant efficiency of C. fistula seed extract. Total phenolic...

Author(s): Subramanion L. Jothy, Zakaria Zuraini and Sreenivasan Sasidharan

May 2011

Effects of a botanical larvicide derived from Azadirachta indica (the neem tree) on oviposition behaviour in Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes

More focus is given to mosquito larval control due to the necessity to use several control techniques together in integrated vector management programmes. Botanical products are thought to be able to provide effective, sustainable and cheap mosquito larval control tools. However, bio-larvicides like Azadirachta indica (neem) could repel adult mosquitoes from laying their eggs in the treated larval habitats. In...

Author(s): Annabel, F. V. Howard, Elizabeth A. Adongo, John Vulule and John Githure

May 2011

Application of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with photodiode array detector for the simultaneous determination of 12 chemical components of traditional Chinese Si-Jun-Zi-Tang formula

We established an UPLC-photodiode array (PDA) detection method to determine simultaneously 12 components, namely Gallic acid, Ferulaic acid, Liquiritin, Benzoic acid, Lobetyolin, Liquiritigenin, Calycosin, Isoliquiritigenin, Formononetin, Glycyrrhizic acid, Atractylenolide III, Glycyrrhetinic acid in traditional Chinese Si-Jun- Zi-Tang (SJZT) formula. They were analyzed in less than 38 min on Acquity UPLC system with...

Author(s): Yingjin Zhang, Xi Huang,, Ying Xie, Yang Wang, Xinjian Qiu, Rong Fan, Ping Ren, Zhaoqian Liu and Honghao Zhou

May 2011

Scutellaria barbata D. Don induces apoptosis of human colon carcinoma cell through activation of the mitochondrion-dependent pathway

Scutellaria barbata D. Don has long been used in China for the clinical treatment of various cancers including colorectal cancer. However, the precise mechanisms of its tumorcidal activity remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the cellular effects of the ethanol extract of S. barbata D. Don (EESB) in the HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line. We found that EESB inhibited the growth of...

Author(s): Lihui Wei, Youqin Chen, , Jiumao Lin, Jinyan Zhao, Xuzheng Chen, Wei Xu, Xianxiang Liu, Thomas J. Sferra,  and Jun Peng

May 2011

Evaluation of different medicinal plants blends in diets for broiler chickens

The effects of five blends of medicinal plants on performance, carcass characteristics, humoral immunity and serum lipids of broiler chickens were studied in this experiment. A total of 304 day- old male Ross-308 broiler chicks were allocated into six dietary treatments including basal diet with no supplement as control group (C), basal diet plus 10 g/kg of herbal blends including; garlic, cinnamon, thyme, rosemary and...

Author(s): Farhad Khaligh, Ghorbanali Sadeghi, Ahmad Karimi and Asaad Vaziry

May 2011

Plant extract activities against the fibroblast cell lysis by honey bee venom

Bee venom stings are still health problems in tropical areas. Local people use herbs as their first choice to relieve envenomation symptoms. In this study, the aqueous extracts of 22 plant species were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Apis melliferaLinn. (Apidae)  bee venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extracts for 30 min and then added to confluent fibroblast...

Author(s): Nunthawun Uawonggul, Sompong Thammasirirak, Arunrat Chaveerach, Chattong Chuachan, Jureerut Daduang, and Sakda Daduang

May 2011

In vitro cytotoxic effects and apoptosis induction by a methanol leaf extract of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.)

This research evaluated the in vitro apoptotic inducing properties of a methanol leaf extract of carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) on a human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa). The cell viability effect on a prostate (DU-145), breast (MDA-MB-231) and colon cell line (HCT-166) was also assessed. The effect of the extract on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by HeLa cells was studied, and a...

Author(s): Luísa Custódio, Ana Luísa Escapa, Eliana Fernandes, Alba Fajardo, Rosa Aligué, Fernando Alberício,, Nuno Neng, José Manuel Florêncio Nogueira and Anabela Romano

May 2011

Exploration of a novel hydroxyl radical scavenger from Sargassum myriocystum

Sargassum myriocystum was selected to evaluate for reactive oxygen radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities using commonly accepted assays. After shade drying, marine seaweeds were powdered and extracts were prepared by cold and Soxhlet methods using various organic solvents. Crude powder materials were used for determination of bio-chemical constituents like protein, carbohydrate and phenolic...

Author(s): Badrinathan S., Suneeva S. C., Shiju T. M., Girish Kumar C. P. and Pragasam V.

May 2011

Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial and cardiovascular effects of Gomphrena globosa L. (Amaranthaceae)

Gomphrena globosa L. (Amaranthaceae) is used in folk medicine in the treatment of high blood pressure and other diseases. To confirm this popular use, ethanol extract from leaves of G. globosa L. was prepared by maceration and analyzed by some phytochemical and biological assays, including cardiovascular activity. The phytochemical screeningdetected the presence...

Author(s): Daniel Dias Rufino Arcanjo, Ingrid Virgínia de Oliveira Sena, Adonai Carvalho Medeiros de Albuquerque, Bernardo Melo Neto, Lorena Citó Lopes Resende Santana, Náiguel Castelo Branco Silva, Maria Marilza Moita, Maria das Graças Freire de Medeiros, Maria José dos Santos Soares, Nilza Campos de Andrade and Antônia Maria das Graças Lopes Citó

May 2011

Potent antagonistic activity of newly isolated biological control Bacillus subtilis and novel antibiotic against Erysiphe graminis f.sp tritici

A newly isolated Bacillus subtilis, as well as its antibiotic, had potent antagonistic activity against Erysiphe graminis f.sp tritici. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antibiotic for E. graminis f.sp tritici was determined. We arrived at an opinion: for some bacteria, unless the ammonium sulfate-precipitated substance had been filtered with a membrane, even if...

Author(s): Chen-Xiaoxi and Liu Wenhong

May 2011

Chili pepper-induced injury to splenic tissue of rabbit

Chili pepper is the most common species used in food throughout the world. In the present study, we examined the effects of chili pepper on rabbit’s splenic tissue. Oral administration of chili pepper was carried out every day for 10 days at a dose of 2 g/kg rabbit. Chili pepper induced significant increase in spleen weight as well as the number of leucocytes. Spleen architecture was altered as indicated by the...

Author(s): Badr Al- Dahmesh, Mohamed A. Dkhil, and  Saleh Al-Quraishy

May 2011

Nelumbo nucifera alkaloid inhibits 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and improves high-fat diet-induced obesity and body fat accumulation in rats

The leaf of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn has been used for summer heat syndrome as home remedy in China, and it has been used for the treatment of obesity in traditional medical clinics in China, so we investigated the pharmacological activity of the antiobesity effect ofN. nucifera leaves extract. N. nucifera alkaloid (NNA), which is the main component in theN. nucifera leaves. 3T3-L1...

Author(s): Xie Bin, Wan Jin, Wang Wenqing, Shi Chunyang, Hou Xiaolong and Fang Jianguo

May 2011

Effect of supplementation with grape seed (Vitis vinifera) extract on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in patient with type ΙΙ diabetes

To determine the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on antioxidant defense system and lipid peroxidation in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). During a randomized double blind clinical trial adult subjects with type 2 diabetes were supplemented with 200 mg/day of GSE or placebo for two months. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning and the end of study to determine total...

Author(s): Bahram Pourghassem-Gargari, Somayeh Abedini, Hossein Babaei, Akbar Aliasgarzadeh and Parvin Pourabdollahi

May 2011

Screening of chemical composition of essential oil, mineral elements and antioxidant activity in Pulicaria Undulata (L.) C. A. Mey from Iran

Pulicaria undulata  (L.) C.A. Mey is a medicinal plant used to treat inflammation. It is also an insect repellent  and herbal tea. In this study, concentration of  macro minerals (that is, Ca, K and Mg) and micro minerals (major and trace elements) (that is, Fe, Cu, Na and Mn) and P, were estimated in Pulicaria undulata from the Sistan and Baluchestan province. Sample preparation using microwave...

Author(s): Mehdi Ravandeh, Jafar Valizadeh, Meissam Noroozifar and Mozhgan Khorasani-Motlagh

May 2011

Antifungal properties of Allium ursinum L. ethanol extract

Allicin analysis of Allium ursinum L. flower and leaf ethanol extracts by LC/MS and in vitrogermination and growth inhibition effects on Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis paeoniae, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tulipae, Penicillium gladioli, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were performed. The antifungal activity of the flower extract was stronger than that of the leaf extract,...

Author(s): Marcel Pârvu, Alina E. Pârvu, Laurian Vlase, Oana RoÅŸca-Casian and Ovidiu Pârvu

May 2011

Antioxidant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of aqueous extract From stem bark of Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir. (Fabaceae)

The aqueous extract of Pterocarpus erinaceus stem bark was investigated for its anti inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities. The phytochemical screening using standard procedures of analysis revealed the presence of  tannins, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenoids and steroids The antioxidant test using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) methods...

Author(s): N. Ouédraogo,, A. Tibiri, R. W. Sawadogo, M. Lompo, A. E. Hay, J. Koudou, M. G. Dijoux and I. P. Guissou,

May 2011

Consumer preferences for medicinal and aromatic plant products: Surveys of urban consumers and sellers in western mediterranean region of Turkey

The aim of this study is to determine the consumer preferences for medicinal and aromatic plant products in three city centers located in the Western Mediterranean Region in Turkey. The consumer preferences were considered together with the consumption purposes, factors that constitute the consumption habits, the plants preferred in consumption and how they are consumed, how such products are provided and in means of...

Author(s): Mehmet Korkmaz, Huseyin Fakir and Bilgin Guller

May 2011

In-vitro antagonistic activities of crude dichloromethane extracts of Garcinia kola (Heckel) seeds against potentially pathogenic Vibrio species

Dichloromethane extracts of the seeds of Garcinia kola were screened for anti-Vibrioactivities against a panel of 50 Vibrio isolates comprised of five different species namelyVibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio fluvialis and Vibrio metschnikovii andVibrio sp. (not identified to the specie level). The extract had activity against 16 of...

Author(s): Penduka D. and AI Okoh

May 2011

The obtaining of an antioxidant product based on Issopus officinalis freeze: Dried extract

The aim of this study was to obtain a freeze-dried extract from Issopus officinalis with an important antioxidant and antimicrobial effect. The extract was obtained in a fluidized bed solid extractor and the optimal values of phenols, flavonoids and the highest reduction power were determined when using 75% ethanol as solvent, the antioxidant activity ranging between 90 to 95%. In case of the freeze-dried...

Author(s): Vamanu Emanuel, Vamanu Adrian, Niţă Sultana and Colceriu Svetlana

May 2011

Acetylcholinesterase and NADH oxidase inhibitory activity of some medicinal plants

Acetyl-cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7) comprise a family of enzymes which include serine hydrolases. Acetyl-cholinesterase (AChE) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and termination of the nerve impulse in cholinergic synapses. AChE inhibitory activities were determined as given in Materials and Methods. Results show that the following plants have more than 50% inhibition of AChEase enzyme...

Author(s): Muhammad Ashraf, Khalil Ahmad, Irshad Ahmad, Saeed Ahmad, Shafia Arshad, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah and Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim

May 2011

Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (NTPDase) inhibitory activity of some medicinal plants

Nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolasess (NTPDases, EC 3.6.1.5) are well characterized ectoenzymes which are involved in the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP resulting in the formation of nucleoside monophosphates and orthophosphate. By hydrolyzing circulating ATP to ADP to AMP, NTPDases play a crucial role in preventing the activation of platelets and their aggregation. NTPDase inhibitors therefore are currently target...

Author(s): Muhammad Ashraf, Khalil Ahmad, Irshad Ahmad, Saeed Ahmad, Shafia Arshad, Syed Muhammad Ali Shah and Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim

May 2011

An ethnomedicinal inventory of knotweeds of Indian Himalaya

The present study aims to highlight the current knowledge of the usefulness of Knotweeds (Polygonum L.) of India as to point out what species need careful consideration for conservation rather than eradication. The present  study intends to produce an inventory of the important Polygonums that needs re-evaluation for cultivation and hence increasing our accessibility to natural medicinal...

Author(s): Ritesh Kumar Choudhary, Sungrae Oh and Joongku Lee

May 2011

Effect of topical application of G7 in reducing histamine induced skin reactions: A preliminary study

A Siddha drug G7 was tested for its anti allergic activity in human subjects. Histamine was prick tested onto the drug sensitized region and control site of volar forearm. The extent of erythema, oedema and itching were scored. G7 exhibited activity in reducing the erythema and itching induced by histamine in a dose dependent manner.   Key word: Anti allergic activity, histamine, Siddha, medicinal plants.

Author(s): J. R. Krishnamoorthy, S. Ranganathan, M. S. Ranjith, S. Gokulshankar and P. Sumithira

May 2011

The use of geographical information system (GIS) for the extension of Echium amoenum Fisch. et Mey., a medicinal plant, in the Northern part of Iran

Viper's bugloss (Echium amoenum Fisch. et Mey.), a medicinal plant, grows as wild and cultivated in Eshkevarat area located in the northern mountains of Iran. Information layers from environmental factors affected on the growth of this plant was prepared by geographical information system (GIS) and overlaid in order to the plant extension and preservation, as well increasing of rural society's economic...

Author(s): Alireza Eslami and Behzad Kaviani

May 2011

Response surface methodology for optimization of polysaccharides extraction by mild alkaline hydrolysis from fruiting body of medicinal mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum

Polysaccharides (PLS) is a major source of biological activity and therapeutic use ofmedicinal basidiomycete, Ganoderma lucidum. The aim of this study was to systematically obtain a model of factors that would yield an optimized extraction condition of PLS from fruiting body of G. lucidum, and compared alkaline hydrolysis extraction and aqueous extraction methods in PLS...

Author(s): Gao-Qiang Liu, Yan Zhao, Xiao-Ling Wang and Chao-Yang Zhu