African Journal of
Pure and Applied Chemistry

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pure Appl. Chem.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0840
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPAC
  • Start Year: 2007

AJPAC Articles

November 2018

New method for complete recovery of total cyanide in water and soil and its application at the Samira gold mine (Niger)

Cyanide is a very toxic substance, which occurs in various forms in environmental matrices and its determination requires a good extraction method. From the reference method of cyanide distillation by reflux heating under acidic conditions and entrainment of HCN gas collected as CN- ions with detection by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, an improved and complete procedure for total cyanide extraction in aqueous and solid...

Author(s): Adamou Hassane, Ayouba Mahamane Abdoulkadri and Rabani Adamou  

September 2018

Spectrophotmetric evaluation of rotenone extraction from leaves and seeds of mature Tephrosia vogelii plant

The percentage yield of rotenone extracted from Tephrosia vogelii leaves and seeds was investigated.  Ten samples of well ground leaves and seeds were each subjected to extraction in soxhlet extraction system using trichloromethane, ethanol and methanol solvents for 24 h at room temperature. The maximum absorption wavelength of rotenone was determined using Ultra violet-visible spectrophotometer.  Different...

Author(s): Kariuki, D. K. and Njiru, S. N.  

September 2018

Preliminary characterization of some natural dyes

A preliminary study on the chemical structure of dyes from Rothmannia hispidia, Pterocarpus osun and Terminalia superba was made using chemical tests, UV-visible and infrared spectroscopies. R. hispidia dye was found to contain an alkyl amino group (-NHR) and carbon-carbon double bond conjugated with a carbonyl (C = O) group, and also showed maximum absorption at 595 nm in the visible region. P. osun dye contains...

Author(s): Mercy Amarachukwu Ezeokonkwo, Sunday Nwankwo Okafor and Evelyn Uloma Godwin-Nwakwasi

June 2018

Isolation and characterisation of chemical compounds from the plants, Phytolacca octandra (L.), Phytolacca dodecandra (L'Herit) and Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) commonly used to control schistosomiasis transmitting snails in Kenya

Schistosomiasis is a widespread parasitic infection globally but more so in sub-Saharan Africa which accounts for about 90% of those seeking treatment globally. Fresh water aquatic snails are intermediate hosts of parasites causing the disease. Niclosamide was approved by the World Health Organization to be the main molluscicide used in the control of the snails. However, many plant species could be used as alternative...

Author(s): Kariuki S. T., Kariuki J. M., Mailu B. M. and Muchiri D. R.  

June 2018

Metakaolin clay-derived geopolymer for recycling of waste cathode ray tube glass

Metakaolin clay (MC)-based geopolymer was used to immobilise waste cathode ray tube (CRT) glass as a method of recycling it into other useful products. Effects of CRT glass on the properties of geopolymer and toxicity status were assessed. A Nigerian MC was replaced with different proportions of ground waste CRT glass (0-20%) and alkali-activated to produce geopolymers. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to characterise...

Author(s): Mary B. Ogundiran and Ikpeni S. Enakerakpo

May 2018

Extraction, purification and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignment of garcinoic acid from Garcinia kola (bitter kola) fruit

Continuous extraction of bitter kola nuts, followed by liquid-liquid extraction and flash column chromatography leads to the isolation of garcinoic acid (-tocotrienoloic acid), as the main lipophilic component in a 0.8% yield of the initial dry weight. This compound, an oxidised member of the vitamin E family, was structurally characterised using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Key words: Vitamin E,...

Author(s): B. Jones Orock, J. Henry Blackwell, Yannick Ortin and Paul Evans  

April 2018

Potential of blended biomass feedstock from some species of raffia palm (Raffia farinifera, Raffia hookeri and Raffia vinifera) and Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) from Cameroon

The oil and raffia palm species are indigenous to West and Central Africa, and their exploitation both at industrial and artisanal scale generate important quantities of renewable fibrous biomass that can be converted to high and low value bio-based products. Fibre samples were prepared from three raffia palm species drawn from three locations and Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) from an industrial palm oil mill, all...

Author(s): Beckley Victorine Namondo, Josepha Foba-Tendo, Ekane Peter Etape and Rui Werner Maçedo Krause

March 2018

Multi residue analysis of pesticides in pre and postharvest wheat grains in Misha Woreda, Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia

This study was conducted to assess the presence of pesticides residues in wheat from Misha woreda, Haiya Zone, Ethiopia. Samples of wheat were collected during the period December 2015 to August 2016. Gas chromatograph (GC-MS) detection was employed after Liquid-Liquid extraction (LLE). The concentration levels of eight pesticides have been investigated in both wheat samples in farm and purchased from storage...

Author(s): Demis Zelelew, Hadush Gebrehiwot and Dereje Bezuyehu

February 2018

Analysis of physico-chemical properties and heavy metals content of drinking water from selected areas in Gurage Zone, Ethiopia

Metal contamination in water is a major determinant of water quality. People who consume this water suffer from water borne diseases. There are various natural and anthropological activities at the sample collection site leading to increase in concentration of trace elements in drinking water. Activities like corrosion of metal coated pipes, herbicides, insecticides, ceramic wastes, taking gravel from near water source,...

Author(s): Sage Desalegn, Lera Israel and Kebede Wouduma  

January 2018

Anti-bacterial and brine shrimps lethality studies of the essential oils of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth S. More) grown in south west Nigeria

Interest in plants’ essential oils has grown recently due to increased use of natural products in medicine and cosmetics. In spite of its long use, there has been little prior study on the bioactivity and toxicity of the essential oils of Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth S. More). Thus in this work, the anti-bacterial and brine shrimps’ lethality of the essential oils obtained through hydro-distillation...

Author(s): Owokotomo, I. A. and Owokotomo, E. P.

December 2017

Determination of mercury and cadmium levels in omega-3 food supplements available on the Ghanaian market

The numerous reputed health benefits of the omega-3s (eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]), particularly, their cardio-protective effects have led to the manufacture of omega-3 supplements by various pharmaceutical companies resulting in their flooding of the Ghanaian market. Coldwater fishes which are the primary sources of the omega-3 fatty acids are known to have high levels of mercury and...

Author(s): Adolf Oti-Boakye, Akwasi Acheampong, Ohene Gyang Nathan, Akorfa Akosua Agbosu and Amoah Charles Agyei

November 2017

Atomic force microscopy studies on sulfur-, selenium- and tellurium-based metal chalcogenide thin films: A review

Sulfur, selenium and tellurium-based metal chalcogenide films have been prepared using various deposition methods. Investigation of morphological properties of the generated surface structures on chalcogenide thin films using atomic force microscopy technique was reported. The purpose of this work is to describe past important research findings that are related to atomic force microscopy...

Author(s): Ho Soonmin

July 2017

Sorption of Cypermethrin from Alfisol and Inceptisol using acidified simulated rainwater in a soil column set-up

Cypermethrin is a synthetic, pyrethroid insecticide and used for agricultural practices. The leaching of this pesticide through soil is of great concern because of the possibility of contaminating ground and surface water. The mobility of pesticide in soil being the main environmental reservoir varies among soil orders and the concept is still under investigation. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the...

Author(s): Ayodele Rotimi Ipeaiyeda and Adenike Oluwaseyi Fasiku

July 2017

Comparative evaluation of the antipsoriatic activity of Acalypha wilkesiana, Culcasia scandens with Kigelia africana using the mouse tail model

The mouse tail model was used to measure and compare antipsoriatic activity of Acalypha wilkesiana and Culcasia scandens with that of earlier reported Kigelia africana stem methanol extract by the same authors, with the objective of finding out which of these plant extracts can be a better drug option for the treatment of psoriasis. The results obtained showed that topically administered extracts (50-200 mg/ml) induced...

Author(s): Folashade Olatunbosun Oyedeji and Olufunso Samuel Bankole-Ojo

June 2017

Effect of roasting temperature on the physicochemical properties of Jatropha curcas Kernel oil extracted with cold hexane and hot water

The industrial application of a vegetable oil is determined by the oil properties. This work was undertaken to alter the properties of Jatropha curcas Kernel oil and possibly find new applications for it. The seed kernels were roasted to different temperatures (140 to 230°C) and the physicochemical properties of the cold hexane and hot water extracted oils were studied. The oil yield, saponification, iodine, acid...

Author(s): Louis M. Nwokocha and Adewale Adegbuyiro

February 2017

Quantification of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn from sewage sludge by modified-BCR and ultrasound assisted-modified BCR sequential extraction methods

Determination of the levels of heavy metals in sewage sludge is necessary prior to application of the sludge to agriculture because of the inherent risk of heavy metal toxicity to soil, plants and humans. The heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) in sewage sludge were quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) following extraction with modified-BCR and ultrasonic assisted-BCR...

Author(s): Sylvia Gwebu, Nikita T. Tavengwa, Michael J. Klink, Fanyana M. Mtunzi, Sekomeng J. Modise and Vusumzi E. Pakade

January 2017

Electrochemical and optical band gaps of bimetallic silver-platinum varying metal ratios nanoparticles

Simultaneous citrate reduction of various ratios of silver and platinum ions leads to the formation of core-shell nanostructured bimetallics (BM). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction XRD data of the BMs depicted crystalline core-shell nanoparticles consisting of Ag core and Pt shell with an average size of 22.2 nm in contrast to the  Pt NPs and Ag NPs monometallics  average sizes of...

Author(s): Fredrick O. Okumu and Mangaka C. Matoetoe

November 2016

Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions using biochar prepared from Eichhorrnia crassipes (Water Hyacinth)-molasses composite: Kinetic and equilibrium studies

A biochar based adsorbent prepared from Eichhornia crassipes-molasses bio-composite was tested for its ability to remove methylene blue from aqueous solutions. Molasses were used as a granulating media for powdered biomass making it easier to prepare the biochar under set conditions. The Biochar adsorbent was prepared by igniting biomass granules at 400°C. A maximum adsorption capacity of 44.13 mg∙g-1 was achieved...

Author(s): Mupa Mathew, Rutsito D. Desmond and Musekiwa Caxton

October 2016

Copper-paracetamol complexes: Promising lead antibacterial drug candidates

Antibiotic resistance by microorganisms has triggered the need to discover new antibiotics to replace the old ones. The study was designed to prepare copper-paracetamol complexes which will serve as lead compounds towards the discovery of novel antibiotics. Copper sulphate was reacted with paracetamol in the presence of sodium nitrate in borate buffer to give products which were separated into three layers when...

Author(s): Samuel Mawuli Adadey and Justice Kwabena Sarfo

August 2016

Preparation, structural and thermal studies of boroxine adducts having aryl boronic acids and pyrazoles

Four new boroxine adducts ((B3O3(Ph)3PzH) (1), (B3O3(Ph)3(PztBu,iPrH)2) (2), (B3O3(PhF2)3PzH). PzH (3) and (B3O3(PhF2)3(PztBu,iPrH)2) (4)) using phenylboronic acid, 3,5-difluorophenylboronic acid, 1H-pyrazole (PzH) and 3-tert-butyl-5-isopropyl pyrazole (PztBu,iPrH) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H-NMR and X-ray diffraction. The crystallographic study reveals that PzH and PztBu,iPrH are...

Author(s): Hezil Hassan

July 2016

Photocatalytic activity of nanopolyaniline (NPA) on phenol degradation

Nanopolyaniline (NPA) has been synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline and characterized using Fourier transmission infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ultra-violet visible techniques. XRD patterns confirm that NPA has crystallite size of 37 nm with monoclinic structure and UV-visible spectra indicate its band gap energy is 1.96 electron volts. Photocatalytic efficiency of as-synthesized NPA...

Author(s): Tesfa Oluma Fufa, Abi Tadesse Mengesha and Om Prakash Yadav

March 2016

The effect of corrosion inhibitors on stainless steels and aluminium alloys: A review

This paper summarizes the effect of inhibitors on the corrosion of stainless steels and aluminium alloys in different media. Stainless steels and aluminium alloys have a wide range of applications in construction, transport, domestic appliances, medical, and energy related fields. The exposure of stainless steels and aluminium alloys to corroding environments however, results in the degradation of the materials....

Author(s): Eugene Uwiringiyimana, O’Donnell P. Sylvester, Ifeoma V. Joseph and Feyisayo V. Adams

January 2016

Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Garcinia kola and its antimicrobial potential

We have investigated the green synthesis and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles using Garcinia kola.  Aqueous extract of G. kola was used to reduce AgNO3 solution to obtain black nanocrystal of silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of the silver nanoparticles was tested against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer...

Author(s): Labulo Ayomide Hassan, Adesuji Temitope Elijah, Oseghale Charles Ojiefoh, Omojola Joseph, Bodede Olusola Sunday, Dare Enock Olugbenga, and Akinsiku Abimbola Anuoluwapo

January 2016

Assessment of anti-corrosion potentials of extract of Ficus asperifolia -Miq (Moraceae) on mild steel in acidic medium

The inhibitory potentials of ethanolic extracts and four fractions of the stem bark of Ficus asperifolia – Miq. for the corrosion of mild steel were assessed using weight loss method, Fourier atomic absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of varying immersion period, concentration of the inhibitors and temperatures for mild steel corrosion in 5 M HCl acid solution were carried out....

Author(s): Fadare, O. O., Okoronkwo, A. E. and Olasehinde, E. F. 

December 2015

Fabrication and evaluation of multiple template cross-linked molecularly imprinted electro spun nanofibers for selective extraction of nickel and vanadyl tetraphenylporphyrin from organic media

A nickel vanadyl molecularly imprinted nanofiber (NVMIN) was developed by the electrospinning technique, employing polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and linear polyethylenimine (L-PEI) as the matrix polymers, nickel tetraphenylporphyrin (NTPP) and vanadyl tetraphenylporphyrin (VTPP) as the mixed-template molecules. The fabricated NVMIN was evaluated as a sorbent for the removal of NTPP and VTPP from organic media. The...

Author(s): Kehinde Nurudeen Awokoya, Zenixole Tshentu and Nelson Torto

November 2015

Health risk assessment of heavy metals in water, air, soil and fish

The study and application of health risk assessment techniques are crucial in order to understand the risk of exposure to heavy metals and other harmful pollutants. It entails evaluating the risks of exposure at various concentrations and with reference to certain standard values approved by World Health Organization (WHO) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Investigation of water contamination...

Author(s): Isa Baba Koki, Amina Salihi Bayero, Aminu Umar and Sabo Yusuf

November 2015

Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of MnO2/Al2O3/Fe2O3 nanocomposite for degradation of malachite green

New nanocomposite MnO2/Al2O3/Fe2O3 photocatalyst was successfully synthesized by sol-gel method using metal salts as precursors in the presence of acid catalyst. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Elemental analyses of the as-synthesized samples were similar to those...

Author(s): Haile Hasana Logita, Abi Tadesse and Tesfahun Kebede

October 2015

Comparative study of 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin assisted and conventional synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives and the solvent effects on spectroscopic properties

A small library of benzimidazoles with a range of side-chain substituents have been synthesized through the condensation reaction of o-phenylenediamine derivatives and several other commercially available materials. The reactions were catalyzed by either 4M HCl or 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBDMH). The compounds synthesized using DBDMH as the catalyst required a shorter reaction time, the yield was higher and...

Author(s): Peter Adekunle Segun

September 2015

Toxicity study of ethanol root extract of Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae) and assessment of some heavy metals

The extract of Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. has been used in the management of pile and other ailments across West Africa. This has necessitated the evaluation of the toxicity of this plant in Sub-chronic and acute administration as well as heavy metal analysis. The root of T. macroptera was extracted with ethanol and analyzed for the presence of phytochemicals. The powdered root was digested and analyzed...

Author(s): Y. Yakubu, O. A. Adoum, A. M. Wudil and Z. Ladan

August 2015

Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruits sold in major markets of Minna Niger State, Nigeria

This study investigated the nutritional, anti-nutritional factors, functional properties, mineral and amino acid contents of Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits using standard analytical methods. The results revealed that date palm (P. dactylifera L.) contain some percentage  crude protein (1.21 ± 0.02%), crude fat (1.73 ± 0.46%), crude fibre (2.26 ± 0.07%), ash (1.88± 0.03%), moisture...

Author(s): E. Y. Shaba, M. M. Ndamitso, J.  T. Mathew, M. B. Etsunyakpa, A. N. Tsado and S. S Muhammad

August 2015

Spectrophotometric study on the stability constants and thermodynamic parameters of Zn2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+ complexes with Imino Thiazolidinone

The heterocyclic ligand (L), 3-(2-hydroxy phenyl)-2-iminothiazolidin-4-one, was synthesized by the cyclocondensation of o-hydoxy phenyl chloroacetamide with potassium thiocyanate. The stoichiometries of the title complexes were first determined by spectrophotometric mole ratio method which gave rise to the M:L ratio of 1:4 in case of Zn(II) and Cd(II) and 1:2 in case of Hg(II) ions respectively. Using these...

Author(s): Zewdu B. Gemechu, Tesfahun Kebede, Ephrem G. Demissie, Girma W. Woyessa and Solomon B. Kassa

August 2015

Thermodynamic analysis of some volatile species at elevated pressure and temperature during combustion of Pakistani Lakhra and Thar lignite chars

Volatile species (e.g. Na-,K-,Cl-, and S) are released during thermal conversion of coal causing eventual problems such as fouling, slagging and corrosion, especially in gas turbines, on super heaters and in the colder part of heat recovery systems. Thermodynamic study of the released inorganic compounds is supportive before eventually launching experimental work. Therefore, thermodynamic equilibrium was calculated...

Author(s): Gul-e-Rana Jaffri, Syed Ali Rizwan shah Jaffri and Syed Ali Rehan Shah Jaffri

July 2015

The potential of binary blended geopolymer binder containing Ijero-Ekiti calcined kaolin clay and ground waste window glass

The aim of this study was to investigate alkaline reactivity potentials of calcined clay and ground waste window glass with NaOH/Na2SiO3 solution to form geopolymer, an inorganic binder. A calcined clay (CC) sourced from Ijero-Ekiti, Nigeria, was replaced by various proportions (0, 25, 50 and 75%) of ground waste window glass (GWWG) and subjected to alkaline activation by NaOH/Na2SiO3 solution. X-ray florescence (XRF)...

Author(s): Mary Bosede Ogundiran and Festus Abodunde Winjobi

June 2015

Unexpected mixed valence iron(II, III) µ3-oxo furfuryl complex with wheel motif isolated when preparing iron(II) arene complexes

A series of new compounds including 2-({[(4-(propoan-2-yl)benzyl]Oxy}methyl)tetrahydrofuran ligand were tested in order to link auxiliary and labile ligands to iron arene complexes. The given reaction of benzyletherfurane ligand with Fe (II) sources resulted to the isolation of unexpected mixed valence µ3-oxo-Fe6IIFeIII compound, which has been fully characterized by x-ray crystallography. The resulting complex...

Author(s): Roger Mafua, and Jean-Luc Débieux

June 2015

Inhibitive and adsorptive effect of Parinari polyandra on mild steel corrosion in aqueous sulphuric acid

The inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M sulphuric acid solution by ethanol extracts of Parinari polyandra as an eco-friendly inhibitor was studied at different temperatures by weight loss technique and linear polarization. The test plant extracts has a promising inhibitory action against corrosion of mild steel in the sulphuric acid media. The inhibition efficiencies increase with a corresponding increase in the...

Author(s): F. E. Awe, S. O. Idris, M. Abdulwahab and E. E. Oguzie

June 2015

A study of the morphology and optical properties of electro polished steel in the presence of Vitamin-C

The studies of steel electrochemical polishing Electropolishing (EP) in orthophoshoric acid were performed by potentiodynamic polarization. Electropolishing was conducted in solution containing Vitamin C. Addition of Vitamin C to electropolishing solution results in a lower limiting current. Vitamin C concentration influence on electropolishing process and surface texture (AFM, SEM) and UV-VIS-NIR Spectroscopy was...

Author(s): Fatma M. Abouzeid

May 2015

Determination of phenylethyl alcohol by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) in Budesonide nasal spray

Phenylethyl alcohol is used as an antimicrobial preservative in many pharmaceutical products, especially nasal sprays. A simple and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to assay of phenylethyl alcohol in budesonide nasal spray preparations. A waters C18 symmetry column chromatographic system (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm particle size) was performed with a 50:50 (%V/V)...

Author(s): Reza Hosseini, Fereshteh Naderi and Saman Ahmad Nasrollahi

May 2015

Phytochemical composition, antioxidant and anti-nutritional properties of root-bark and leaf methanol extracts of Senna alata L. grown in Nigeria

Senna alata L. has been ethnobotanically used extensively in traditional medicines for the treatment of a variety of diseases such as skin problems, arthritis, HBP (high blood pressure), and laxative or purgative. The phytochemical, anti-nutritive and antioxidant activities of the leaf and root bark of Senna alata L. grown in Bida Niger State, Nigeria were determined using standard analytical methods. Phytochemical...

Author(s): Abubakar I., Mann A. and Mathew J. T.

May 2015

Evaluation of anti-oxidant properties in essential oil and solvent extracts from Tagetes minuta

Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are toxic and carcinogenic, thus they induce DNA damage. This calls for the need to find alternative antioxidants from natural products. Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) is an annual herb that belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is used in common medicine and grows in temperate regions of South America, some parts of Africa and...

Author(s): Kyarimpa Christine, Isaiah Ndiege Omolo, John David Kabasa, Christine Betty Nagawa, John Wasswa and Cliff Richard Kikawa

May 2015

Accessing the potential of Lonchocarpus laxiflorus roots (LLR) plant biomass to remove Cadmium (II) ions from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium and kinetic studies

The potential of Lonchocarpus laxiflorus roots (LLR) for the removal of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solutions has been investigated. The adsorption of Cd (II) ions was found to be affected by solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, initial metal ion concentration, and temperature. The equilibrium was analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The data was found to have a closer correlation with the...

Author(s): A. H. Santuraki and A. A. Muazu

April 2015

Estimation of the refractive indices of some binary mixtures

Refractive index is a useful fluid characterization parameter with widespread industrial applications. The values for many pure liquids are known or readily available in literature. However, when experimental data are not available, the refractive indices of binary and multi-component liquids are often estimated from the pure components using mixing rules which are sometimes not accurate. This study was designed to...

Author(s): Isehunwa S. O., Olanisebe E. B., Ajiboye O. O. and Akintola S. A.

April 2015

Oxidation of acha (Digitaria exilis) starch using 3.5% active chlorine sodium hypochlorite

Acha (Digitaria exilis) starch was chemically modified using sodium hypochlorite (3.5% active chlorine) as oxidative agent. The physicochemical properties of the native acha starch and oxidized derivative were investigated. Oxidation improved the water and oil absorption capacity of the native acha starch and also the emulsion capacity was significantly improved. The bulk density, foam capacity and solubility reduced...

Author(s): S. Isah, A. A. Oshodi and V. N. Atasie

April 2015

Reversal of plasticity of acid leached kaolinitic clays from Mukurwe-ini

This study aimed at finding out whether the property of plasticity of acid leached clays can be reversed by treatment with a suitable base. Studies were carried out on representative samples, which were taken from iron bearing clays from Mukurwe-ini, Nyeri County in Kenya (Latitude 00°34´00´´S, Longitude 37°03´00´´E). Characterization of the clay was done in its natural form,...

Author(s): Dickson Andala and Wachira David Maina

March 2015

Physiochemical characterisation and level of potentially toxic metals in surface water around yauri abattoir, north western Nigeria

Physicochemical and potentially toxic metals statuses of surface water samples collected around the Yauri abattoir were examined. Health risk assessment of the toxicant via ingestion was interpreted by calculating the hazard quotient (HQ). The mean concentration values for total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solid (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), phosphate, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were 1026.78, 565.22,...

Author(s): Yahaya M. I. and Agbendeh Z. M.

March 2015

Corrosion and corrosion inhibition of cast Iron in hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution by cantaloupe (Cucumis melo) as green inhibitor

The effect of cantaloupe juice and seed extracts on corrosion of cast iron in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution using hydrogen evolution measurements (HEM) and mass loss measurements (MLM) were investigated. Cantaloupe extracts inhibited the corrosion of cast iron in 1.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition efficiency increased with concentration of the extracts. The adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on cast iron...

Author(s): Khadijah M. Emran, Arwa O. Al-Ahmadi, Bayan A. Torjoman, Najla M. Ahmed and Sara N. Sheekh

March 2015

Efficiency enhancement in P3HT:PCBM blends using Squarylium III dye

Nano-size thin films comprising poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and a fullerene derivative [6, 6] phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) incorporating squarylium dye III (SQ3) are reported. The materials prepared were evaluated for their optical, electrical and photo-conversion efficiency. Active layer materials comprising a blend of P3HT:SQ3:PCBM were deposited by spin-coating to produce thin films measuring 100 nm...

Author(s): M. Tembo, M. O. Munyati, S. Hatwaambo and M. Maaza

February 2015

Extraction of silica gel from Sorghum bicolour (L.) moench bagasse ash

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) moench), a crop that is grown by subsistence farmers in Zimbabwe was used to extract silica gel in order to assess its possible use as a raw material for the production of silica-based products. The gel was prepared from sodium silicate extracted from sweet sorghum bagasse ash by sodium hydroxide leaching. Results show that maximum yield can be obtained at pH 5 and with 3 M sodium...

Author(s): Mupa M., Hungwe C. B. , Witzleben S. , Mahamadi C. and Muchanyereyi N.

February 2015

Multifactorial discriminant analysis of leaf oil of C. odorata L. King and Robinson from Côte d'Ivoire

The chemical composition of 71 essential-oil samples isolated from the leaves of Chromolaena odorata harvested in eight Ivoirian sites (Toumodi, Dougba, Yamoussoukro, Zambakro, Toumbokro, Attiegbakro, Tiebissou and Tie-N’Diekro) was investigated by GC-FID, including the determination of retention indices (RIs), and by 13C-NMR analyses. In total, 31 components accounting for 55.5 - 90.2% of the oil composition were...

Author(s): Esse Leon Wognin, Affia Florence Brou, Thierry Acafou Yapi, Kidjegbo Augustin Touré, Tomi Félix and Zanahi Felix Tonzibo

February 2015

A physico-chemical analysis of soil and selected fruits in one rehabilitated mined out site in the Sierra Rutile environs for the presence of heavy metals: Lead, Copper, Zinc, Chromium and Arsenic

The accumulation of heavy metals in soils especially in mining environments is of increasing concern to researchers in the Agricultural Industry. This is because the metals are biomagnified by plants. Accumulation of heavy and trace metals in plants occur by various sources but soil is considered the major one. Consumption of vegetables and fruits containing heavy metals is one of the main ways in which these elements...

Author(s): P. O. Egbenda, F. Thullah and I. Kamara

January 2015

Amino acid content, fatty acid content and anti nutritional factor of seeds of new hybrid varieties of Echinochloa frumentacea (Sanwa) minor millets

Cereals are the staple diet of most of the world’s population. The millets are very important staple food in the rural parts of India. Millets can secure India’s food and farming in future because it is amazing in their nutrition contents. Echinochloa frumentacea (Sanwa) millet is good source of energy and provide protein, fatty acid, minerals, vitamins, dietary fibre and polypheonals. Proteins present in...

Author(s): S. Gupta, S. K. Shrivastava and M. shrivastava

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