Journal of
Development and Agricultural Economics

  • Abbreviation: J. Dev. Agric. Econ.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9774
  • DOI: 10.5897/JDAE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 514

JDAE Articles

Economics of finger millet (Elecusine coracana G.) production and marketing in peri urban area of Pokhara Valley of Nepal

March 2012

A study was conducted on the economics of finger millet production and marketing in peri urban area of Pokhara valley of Nepal in 2006 AD. The sampling frame was 154 and 193 producers selected from Kalabang and Begnas study sites respectively. Sampling intensity of 30% was used to randomly select the population sample size which gave 47 for Kalabang and 58 for Begnas. Household survey was carried out to collect the...

Author(s): Raj K. Adhikari

Rural household livelihood strategies in drought-prone areas: A case of Gulomekeda District, eastern zone of Tigray National Regional State, Ethiopia

March 2012

Despite the continuing economic centrality of agriculture in the district, farm households engage and pursue diverse non-farm livelihood activities to cope with diverse challenges and risks such as drought. This paper aims to assess the relative importance of existing livelihood strategies adopted by the different socio-economic groups; the link between households’ ownership and access to different...

Author(s): Gebrehiwot Weldegebrial Gebru and Fekadu Beyene,

Analysis of factors determining cattle marketing of communal farmers in Namibia: A case study from Kunene

March 2012

The purpose of this study was to examine key determinants of cattle marketing in Northern Namibia in the Kunene region. A total of 150 questionnaires were distributed, but only 90 were used for analysis as the rest were either not returned or were rejected as incomplete. The sampling technique was a non-probability (convenience) sampling technique. Since the data was not distributed normally, a non-parametric run-test...

Author(s): Kapimbi Y. and Teweldemedhin M. Y.

Public market information system and farmers food marketing decisions: Econometric evidence from Benin

March 2012

To sell the surpluses of maize, the main staple in Benin, farmers could choose among three modes of transaction: they could sell under a contract with itinerant traders, or sell without a contract at the farm gate or on distant markets. It has been postulated that farmers will choose a profitable mode of transaction if they receive reliable market information on the prevailing market conditions. Using detailed farm...

Author(s): Sylvain Kpenavoun Chogou and Esaïe Gandonou

The effectiveness of microfinance banks in reducing the poverty of men and women at Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State Nigeria

March 2012

Poverty is a large and growing problem in Nigeria resulting in an immense amount of unavoidable suffering. Part of the panacea for the situation includes the policy on the establishment of micro finance banks. This paper aims at investigating the effectiveness of these banks at improving the status of their customers. The rural community was purposively selected because of the presence of three microfinance banks...

Author(s): Akangbe H. O., Olajide O. Adeola and Ajayi A. O.

On the economic effects of livestock theft in Lesotho: An asset-based approach

March 2012

While livestock theft in Lesotho is primarily caused by increased poverty among unemployed workers and drought stricken crop farmers, its effect on stock farmers can be devastating. Using an asset-based approach we show how such theft reduces the affected households’ own consumption of both the “returns” on their wealth, for example milk and wool, and of wealth itself, for example meat and hides. It...

Author(s): Selloane Khoabane and Philip Black

Governance options for price instability: A review of the food grain commodity in Nigeria

February 2012

Beyond the recent hike in global food prices, the markets for food commodity are likely to have entered a period of strong instability given the poor state of infrastructure and the recurrent phenomenon of seasonal variation in food. Whether the approaches based on the management of buffer stocks or the market based approach complemented by a few safety nets, the effectiveness has been limited. Yet the challenge of...

Author(s): John Chiwuzulum Odozi and Bolarin Titus Omonona

Efficiency change in Thailand rice production: Evidence from panel data analysis

February 2012

The impact of modern rice varieties (Mvs) adoption over the past few decades has undergone changes in Thailand's rice production. This has led to the increase in average rice yields in both wet and dry seasons. At the present time, the average rice yield per rai nearly reached the maximum point given the current production technology. The findings indicated that the cost of rice production increased to about...

Author(s): Orawan Srisompun and Somporn Isvilanonda

Factors affecting yields of field crops and land utilisation amongst land reform beneficiaries of Mashonaland Central Province in Zimbabwe

February 2012

The objectives of the study were to determine the level that resettled farmers in Mashonaland Central Province of Zimbabwe utilise their land in the production of field crops as well as to determine their mean yields per hectare. Factors that affect yield and land utilisation were also determined. Data was collected from 245 households using a questionnaire as the main instrument. The majority of the households in the...

Author(s): L. Musemwa and A. Mushunje

Seasonal food shortages and coping strategies adopted by rural households in Northern Ghana

February 2012

A household survey was conducted in four villages in the Bolgatanga District of northern Ghana with the objective of identifying causes and effects of seasonal food shortages and coping strategies adopted by households to increase food availability. Data was collected using structured questionnaires from 200 households selected by the simple random technique and was analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test...

Author(s): Fred Nimoh, Ayaburi Samuel and Ransford Yeboah

Irrigation access and per capita consumption expenditure in farm households: Evidence from Ghana

February 2012

Investment in agricultural water management has been one key poverty reduction strategy in developing countries. In Ghana, irrigation development for livelihood support, which dates back to the 1960s manifested in the development of formal irrigation infrastructure, starting with the rural savannah and coastal regions. This study applied a propensity score matching (PSM) approach and regression analysis (ordinary least...

Author(s): John K. M. Kuwornu and Eric S. Owusu

Community mobilization: A key to effective control of banana xanthomonas wilt

February 2012

Banana xanthomonas wilt (BXW) remains a major threat to banana, an important food and income crop for 12 million poor small-holder farmers in Uganda. Although, BXW has been controlled to some extent in parts of South-western Uganda, it is still a big problem in banana growing areas of Central and Eastern Uganda. We hypothesized that differential success in BXW control is mainly due to approaches...

Author(s): Kubiriba J., Karamura E. B., Jogo, W., Tushemereirwe W. K. and Tinzaara W.

Kenyan cut-flower and foliage exports: A cross country analysis

January 2012

In terms of volume and value, cut-flowers and foliage are the single most important horticultural exports, followed by vegetables and fruits. There are three main consumption centres where the market value for cut-flowers is high these are; the European union (EU), United States of America (USA) and Japan. Competition for these markets are stringent, suggesting that countries may be easily substituted, making it...

Author(s): Nancy Laibuni, Nicholas Waiyaki, Lydia Ndirangu and John Omiti

Estimating the cost of common monetary area in SADC countires: A case study from the Namibian Beef Industry, a vector error correction model approach

January 2012

The aim of this study was to measure the cost of the common monetary area (CMA) to the beef industry in Namibia as a result of the South African Reserve Bank’s monetary policy. A vector error correction  (VEC) model was applied to measure the dynamic effect of the interest and exchange rate between the rand/Namibian dollar on the Namibian beef industry, and more specifically to examine how the volatile nature...

Author(s): Teweldemedhin, MY

Agricultural investment, growth and poverty reduction: What will be the outcomes of the comprehensive Africa agricultural development program in Guinea-Bissau?

January 2012

Promoted under the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), the objective of the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP) is to increase the pace of agricultural growth in order to reduce poverty by half under the first goal of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015. In this paper, we assess the expected effects of the CAADP on growth and poverty in Guinea-Bissau. Simulations...

Author(s): CABRAL François Joseph

Uses of fund and constraints to growth among microfinance institutions in Kano State, Nigeria

January 2012

This study aims to address challenges posed to Microfinance institution (MFIs) as they work to improve access to credits by poor entrepreneurs among farmers and other low resource-based individuals. This prompted this research work. A field survey, using multiphase sampling technique, was conducted to select samples for detailed analysis. Two sets of questionnaires were administered on the eleven (11) MFI decision units...

Author(s): A. M. Makarfi and J. O. Olukosi

Reviewing theory, practices and dynamics of agricultural cooperatives: Understanding cooperatives’ development in Namibia

December 2011

This paper reviews the principles of cooperatives as outlined by the International Cooperative Alliance. The evolution of agricultural cooperative thought, theory, and purpose as well as problems associated with cooperatives are reviewed from the standpoint of how cooperatives can provide benefits to their members. Globally economists, social theorists, and politicians have drawn considerable attention to the early...

Author(s): Benisiu Thomas and Martha Mweneni Hangula

Evaluation of drainage system of forest roads in Iran: Darabkola forest roads

December 2011

It is necessary that forest roads be constructed according to standards considering the importance of forest roads in the forestry plans and sustainable management. The Standard Drainage system is one of the most important technical buildings in the forest road construction. Darabkola forests have been located in the central part of the northern margin of Alborz Mountains in watershed basin 74 which have been...

Author(s): Saeede Scandari and Seyyed Ataollah Hosseini

Willingness to adopt the vine multiplication technique in seed yam production in the forest savanna transition agro-ecological zone, Ghana

December 2011

Yam is a vital crop in Ghana both at the domestic and export markets. It contributes about 17% of agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and plays a key role in household food security with more than 2 million tons harvested each year. However, the inadequacy of planting materials is a major constraint in yam production. The cost of planting materials alone constitutes about 50% of total cost of production. The newly...

Author(s): Bright Owusu Asante, Emmanuel Otoo, Alexander Nana Wiredu, Patricia Acheampong, Jonas Osei-Adu and Benedicta Nsiah-Frimpong

Assessment of shrimp farmers viewpoint toward potential obstacles in Chabahr City, Iran

December 2011

This paper investigates the attitude of shrimp growing managers toward current problems in 2010. The region is located in Chabahar city of Sistan and Baluchistan province, Iran. The population of this study included 36 to 61 farms. Data was collected through fishery organization, cooperative department and also interviews with decision-making units (DMUs) managers. The validity of...

Author(s): Morteza Yaghoubi, Javad Shahraki  and Mohammadali Fattahichitgar

Maize varieties and production constraints: Capturing farmers’ perceptions through participatory rural appraisals (PRAs) in Eastern Kenya

December 2011

Maize is the major staple food for most Kenyan households, and is grown in almost all agro-ecological zones. To assure that new technologies fit farmers’ needs and conditions, Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs) were undertaken in the moist transitional zone of Eastern Kenya, as part of a nationwide study. The results of group discussions in five communities of the zone show that farmers grow a wide...

Author(s): J. O. Ouma and H. De Groote

Economic assessment of malt and traditional beer (dolo) production in Burkina Faso

December 2011

Costs and profits in malt processing, dolo brewing and retail sales and ways to improve thedolo supply chain were surveyed in six cities in Burkina Faso, through questionnaires administered to malt processors, dolo processors, retailers and consumers. The highest costs were reported for dolo processing and the lowest profits for dolo retail sales. Large malt and dolo...

Author(s): S. PALE, D. P. KABORE, S. J. B. TAONDA, B. BOUGOUMA and S. C. MASON

Estimation of farm level technical efficiency in small scale maize production in the Mfantseman Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana: A stochastic frontier approach

November 2011

The primary objective of the study was to estimate the levels of technical efficiency in small scale maize production in the Mfantseman Municipality of Ghana using the Stochastic Frontier Approach. The study also attempted to determine some socio-economic characteristics and management practices which influence technical efficiency in maize production.  Responsiveness of yield to production inputs was also...

Author(s): Felix Larry Essilfie, Maxwell T. Asiamah and Fred Nimoh

Impact of adoption of soil and water conservation technologies on technical efficiency: Insight from smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa

November 2011

In an attempt to enhance agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa, the region has witnessed an influx of approaches to agricultural technology development and dissemination in the past decades. Yet there is paucity of empirical evidence that links these past approaches to productivity indicators or justify the phasing out of the existing approaches with the new ones. We use cross-sectional baseline data, which...

Author(s): Judith Beatrice Auma Oduol, Joachim Nyemeck Binam, Luke Olarinde, Aliou Diagne and Adewale Adekunle

How do managers improve farm performance during the economic slowdown: Survey results from New York agribusinesses

November 2011

This paper examines factors that affect agribusiness management behavior of a sample of dairy, equine, beef cattle, and hog farms in New York State to understand how they survive the ongoing economic hardship. Using a conceptual framework and a Heckman Selection model, this study analyzes the impact of managers’ perceived pressure from the unfavorable economy, their personal traits and their self-assessed...

Author(s): Xu, Pei

Antecedents and effects of group sales on supply chain performance: The case of kola production and marketing in Cameroon

November 2011

Kola plays an important role in the livelihoods of people in the North West region of Cameroon. However, the potential benefits of the product have not been fully exploited due to many problems including ineffective marketing techniques. In an attempt to address this problem, some organisations like the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) have facilitated the producers of kola to embark on group sales as a means to...

Author(s): Amos Gyau, Charlie Mbosso, Zac Tchoundjeu, Divine Foundjem-Tita, Ebenezer Asaah and Steven Franzel

What factors influence the speed of adoption of Soil fertility management technologies? Evidence from Western Kenya

November 2011

Most adoption studies have employed cross-sectional data in a static discrete choice modelling framework to analyze why some farmers adopt technology at a certain point in time. The static approach does not consider the dynamic environment in which the adoption decision is made and thus does not incorporate the speed of adoption and the effect of time-dependent elements in explaining adoption. The...

Author(s): Odendo, Martins, Obare Gideon and Salasya Beatrice

The preferential trade agreements in U. S. green tea trade

November 2011

The purposes of this paper are to assess U.S. preferential trade agreements (PTAs) effects especially to 1) analyze the impact of North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in U.S. green tea trade, and 2) analyze the impact of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) program for green tea trade to U.S. The author propose to apply the gravity equation for U.S. green tea imports by focusing PTAs effects. The period...

Author(s): Koichi Yamaura

Impact of risk attitudes on poverty level among rural farmers in Ogun State

October 2011

This study examined the impact of risk attitudes on poverty level among rural farmers in Ogun state. Data used were generated from a farm survey involving 120 farmers randomly selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. Analytical tools used include descriptive, risk behavioural model (safety-first principle), Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) model and Probit model. The findings revealed that majority of the responding...

Author(s): Ajijola S., O. A. Egbetokun and I. E. Ogunbayo

Determinants of informal savings amongst vegetable farmers in North West Region, Cameroon

October 2011

The study was aimed at determining the socio-economic determinants of informal savings amongst vegetable farmers in the North West Region of Cameroon. Savings and savings mobilization in any economy is undertaken by formal, semi formal and informal institutions. Possibly as a result of this poor bank distribution, one is able to clearly see how the region is highly dominated by the informal sector. Data for the study...

Author(s): Bime MJ and Mbanasor J

Efficiency of the plantain marketing system in Ghana: A co-integration analysis

October 2011

The study assesses the efficiency of the plantain marketing system in Ghana using monthly wholesale prices in GHS/10 kg covering the period 2004 to 2009. The integration among the plantain markets was tested with the Johansen multivariate co-integration analysis and error correction model. The markets chosen for the study are Accra market as a central consumption market; Kumasi market, Sunyani market and Koforidua...

Author(s): Akwasi Mensah - Bonsu, Akua Agyeiwaa-Afrane and John K. M. Kuwornu

Agricultural adjustment in flood-prone areas in Comilla of Bangladesh: A geographical study

October 2011

This paper focuses on agricultural adjustment inclination in flood-prone areas in Comilla, Bangladesh. The study’s area is located in a tropical and rivers’ oriented developing country in Southeast Asia. It has a huge potential of agricultural activities, such as fertile soils of deltaic plains, vast rainfall of monsoon climate, and available labors. On the other hand, natural hazards, for examples, floods,...

Author(s): Asib Ahmed

Determinants of improved maize seed and fertilizer adoption in Kenya

October 2011

The study quantifies factors affecting adoption of improved maize varieties and fertilizer by households in maize growing zones of Kenya. It uses Heckman two-stage model to analyze data collected from 1850 households in 2002. Credit was important in explaining the adoption of improved maize seed and fertilizer. Likewise the ability to access hired labour was positively associated with adoption of improved maize...

Author(s): J. O. Ouma and H. De Groote

The role of Grameen Ghana in improving income of women shea butter processors

October 2011

This paper examines the role of Grameen Ghana’s microcredit scheme in improving the incomes of women engaged in shea butter processing in Ghana. Cross-sectional data obtained from 414 women were fitted into a regression model. The results indicate that Grameen Ghana’s credit programme has not significantly improved the income of women processors who participated in the project suggesting that the objective...

Author(s): Seidu Al-hassan, Abdulai Abdul-Malik and Alhassan Andani

Analysis of factors affecting dairy goat farming in Keiyo North and Keiyo South Districts of Kenya

October 2011

Dairy goat milk production is undertaken in traditional extensive production systems with limited resources and harsh climatic conditions. Less attention has been given to goat milk and related products to minimize poverty food insecurity. The main objective of this study was to analyze the factors of production for dairy goat farming. It was hypothesized that farmers’ factor inputs do not significantly impact on...

Author(s): Kipserem J., Sulo T., Chepng’eno W. and Korir M.

Farmers’ awareness and application of banana Xanthomonas wilt control options: The case of Uganda and Kenya

October 2011

Banana is a key staple and cash crop in east and central Africa. However, the recent outbreak of Banana Xanthomonas wilt (BXW) has threatened farmers whose livelihoods depend on the crop. Since 2002, stakeholders embarked on campaigns to sensitize farmers on the disease and its management. This study evaluated the effectiveness of these efforts by examining farmers’ awareness of the disease, control options and...

Author(s): Wellington Jogo, Eldad Karamura, Jerome Kubiriba, William Tinzaara, Anne Rietveld, Margaret Onyango and Michael Odongo

Determinants of adopting imazapyr-resistant maize for Striga control in Western Kenya: A double-hurdle approach

October 2011

Discussions and debates have been on going about Striga, a major constraint to increasing maize production and food security in western Kenya. To inform these debates this paper applies econometrics to farm survey data in order to estimate and determine the factors which drive farmers’ decision to adopt imazapyr-resistant maize (IRM), a novel technology for Striga control. The study uses data from a multistage,...

Author(s): D. B. Mignouna, V. M. Manyong, K. D. S. Mutabazi and E. M. Senkondo

Dismantling of common property, land use and pastoral livelihoods in eastern Ethiopia

September 2011

This paper examines the emerging challenges to common property resource management in pastoral areas of Ethiopia and a shift in livelihood strategies. Using the institutional analysis and development framework and data from three administrative districts in eastern Ethiopia, results show that traditional management of the rangeland that permits efficient allocation of resources is no longer practiced due to demographic...

Author(s): Fekadu Beyene

Economic analysis of soil fertility restoration options in potato – bean of gardening intercropping in south – rift, Kenya

September 2011

Soil fertility management options to restore soil fertility depletion have been developed and these consist of inorganic and organic fertilizer applications. However, the adoption rates by smallholder farmers for these soil fertility management options are negligible. The overall aim of this study was to evaluate side-by-side economic aspects of different soil fertility improvement options, which have been tested in the...

Author(s): Ngeno Vincent, Langat B. K., Rop Wendi, Chepngeno W. and Kipsat M. J.

Economic analysis of adoption of mulching technology in yam production in Osun State, Nigeria

September 2011

  In addressing the problem of low soil fertility and land degradation occasioned by increased population  growth, erosion of soil nutrients and extreme exposure of land to harsh weather conditions resulting in  reduced yam yield, mulching technology was adopted by the farmers in Osun State, Nigeria. This study    used a multi-stage sampling technique to select...

Author(s): A.  A. Akinola and P. Owombo

Influence of modern technology on small family-owned farms in the Brazilian savannah region: A case study of a settlement in Mato Grosso do Sul State

September 2011

The Savannah region is the second biggest biome in Brazil after the amazon forest. Today, the savannah is Brazil´s largest region responsible for commodity production. Nevertheless, this production is concentrated around large-scale farmers. Most of the small farmers representing the largest group of producers encounter many problems ranging from low levels of production to income difficulties. The objective of...

Author(s): Arcelei Lopes Bambil and Olivier Vilpoux

Does Irrigation enhance and food deficits discourage fertilizer adoption in a risky environment? Evidence from Tigray, Ethiopia

September 2011

The northern Ethiopian highland in general and the Tigray region in particular is a drought prone area where agricultural production risk is prevalent. Moisture stress is a limiting factor for improved agricultural input mainly fertilizer use. Lack of capital and consumption smoothing mechanisms limits households’ investment in production enhancing agricultural inputs, possibly leading into poverty trap. Using a...

Author(s): Gebrehaweria Gebregziabher, and Stein Holden

Application of modified compromise weighted multi-objective programming in Fadama farming in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

September 2011

The application of modified compromise weighted multi-objective programming to Fadama farming in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State was the main focus of the study. Samples of 106 Fadama vegetable cultivars were randomly selected from 12 Fadama user’s associations in the study area. The farm sizes were grouped and formed into three categories namely: below 1 ha, 1 to 2.99 ha and 3 to 4.99 ha farms, with...

Author(s): Sani, M. H., Kushwaha, S., Abubakar, M. M. and Ayoola, G. B.

Economics of sustainable vegetable farming under Fadama condition in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

September 2011

The study examined the sustainable vegetable farming under fadama condition in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi using the following selected crops: onion, tomato, pepper, okro, carrot, cabbage and garden-egg. A total of ninety-six (96) farmers were randomly selected from twelve- (12) Fadama users’ association arranged in strata. Three (3) categories of farmers were formed, namely, below 1, 2 to 3.99, and 3 to...

Author(s): Sani, M. H., Kushwaha, S., Abubakar, M. M. and Ayoola, G. B.

Agricultural technology adoption, seed access constraints and commercialization in Ethiopia

September 2011

This article examines the driving forces behind farmers’ decisions to adopt agricultural technologies and the causal impact of adoption on farmers’ integration into output market using data obtained from a random cross-section sample of 700 farmers in Ethiopia. We estimate a Double-Hurdle model to analyze the determinants of the intensity of technology adoption conditional on overcoming seed access...

Author(s): Solomon Asfaw, Bekele Shiferaw, Franklin Simtowe  and Mekbib Gebretsadik Haile

Institutional incentives and economic aspects of industrial relationships in the Italian agricultural sector

September 2011

Policy interventions and private initiatives undertaken in the Italian agricultural sector have registered varying degrees of impact at the local level, due to the diversity of regional characteristics. The research paper aims to conceptualize the agricultural value-chain model and sheds light on the institutional incentives for product and supply organization in one integrated and interrelated process. The economic...

Author(s): Darina Zaimova

A study on the economic feasibility of date palm cultivation in the Al-Hassa Oasis of Saudi Arabia

September 2011

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with an estimated 25 million date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) produces nearly a million tones of dates annually accounting for about 15% of the global date production. Our study on the economic feasibility of date palm cultivation in the Al-Hassa oasis of the Kingdom estimated the average annual yield of dates per palm to be 48.0 kg per palm with a selling price estimated at SR 4.00...

Author(s): A. Al-Abbad, M. Al-Jamal, Z. Al-Elaiw, F. Al-Shreed and H. Belaifa

Economic analysis of rice production in Cross River State, Nigeria

September 2011

The study was undertaken to examine the economic analysis of rice production in Cross River State of Nigeria. Specifically, the work aimed at examining the socio-economic characteristics of rice producers; identify the production constraints in rice production; identify the resources used for rice production; determine the gross margin and to determine the effect of production inputs on rice output in the study area....

Author(s): I. U. Odoemenem and J. A. Inakwu

Assessing the technical efficiency of commercial egg production in Tanzania for improved livelihoods

August 2011

This study examined the productivity and technical efficiency (TE) of egg production in Tanzania under the intensive system. A multistage random sampling procedure was employed for selecting 80 respondents from two districts; Kibaha and Ilala. This study utilizes the most recent developments in stochastic frontier modeling as specified for a one-step process in Limdep software. Results indicated that the mean TE of egg...

Author(s): Oleke, J. M. and Isinika, A. C.

Comparisons of LSMS-ISA data collection and dissemination efforts in Central America

August 2011

This article aims the comparison of LSMS survey in Central American countries to increase current knowledge of survey methodologies and ensure the most efficient dissemination and utilization of the results.It will improve the availability,quality and relevance of agricultural data for policy and research in Central America. The criterion for this comparison consists of household survey data...

Author(s): Carlos Alberto Zuniga González

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