Journal of
Development and Agricultural Economics

  • Abbreviation: J. Dev. Agric. Econ.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9774
  • DOI: 10.5897/JDAE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 514

JDAE Articles

Contribution of remittance to the improvement of rural households’ livelihoods: The case of Tehuledere Woreda, Northeastern Ethiopia

October 2016

Migration is one among the many livelihood strategies that households employ to diversify their sources of livelihood. Remittances that are channeled by migrants play an important role in improving the living standard of households, and reducing their level of vulnerability. This study discusses the impact of international remittance on the livelihood of the rural poor in Tehuledere Woreda, Northeastern Ethiopia....

Author(s): Kerime Mohammed and Degefa Tolossa

Determinants of off farm income diversification and its effect on rural household poverty in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

October 2016

Data from 500 rural farm households were collected using multistage sampling technique from Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia and the determinants of off farm income diversification and its effect on rural poverty were examined with the help of logit and multinomial logit model. The regression result revealed that age, education, access to infrastructure, livestock ownerships, credits uses, and farm income are the main...

Author(s): Fassil Eshetu and Elias Mekonnen

How do the risk preferences of smallholder farmers affect the attractiveness of restoration activities? Evidence from forest and agricultural land in Rwanda

September 2016

In 2011, the country of Rwanda made a commitment to restore the productivity of 2 million hectares of degraded forest and agricultural land. Agroforestry and improved woodlot management activities were proposed to restore the ecological and economic productivity of agricultural and forestland in Rwanda, but the activities have not been evaluated in terms of their financial profitability, profitability risk, or...

Author(s): Michael Verdone and Andrew Seidl

Trends and regional disparity of maize production in India

September 2016

This study was aimed at investigating trends, instability, and regional variations of maize production in major producing states of India. Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR), Cuddy Della Valley Index (CDVI), and decomposition analysis were used to examine the data ranging from 1980 to 1981 and 2011 to 2012. The study revealed that area under maize in India has increased from 5.89 to 9.19 Mha and production has...

Author(s): Birhanu Ayalew and I. Sekar

Migration, marital arrangements and consumption smoothing among Burkinabè farm households

August 2016

Risk coping is a severe challenge for households in developing countries, particularly for farm household because income is stochastically variable and credit markets are incomplete. Because of lack of formal systems to cope with risk, households rely on informal arrangements such as migration and marriage. This paper contributes to the literature of risk-coping strategies by examining how migration and marital...

Author(s): Pam Zahonogo

Economic benefits of biological control of cassava green mite (CGM) in Ghana

July 2016

The aim of the study was to evaluate the economic impact of biological control of cassava green mite (CGM) in Ghana by using the natural enemy Typhlodromalus manihoti. Both primary and secondary data were used for analysis. In total, 714 cassava producing households were drawn from 17 districts in seven regions of Ghana by employing a combination of proportional, purposive, simple random, and systematic random sampling...

Author(s): Robert Aidoo, Enoch Adjei Osekre, Vincent Logah and John-Eudes Andivi Bakang

Economic analysis of profitability and competitiveness of sugarcane enterprise in Nigeria

June 2016

In Nigeria, cultivation of Industrial Sugarcane has suffered a serious setback due to poor performance of government established and owned sugar companies. Arising from over-dependence on sugar importation, development in the Nigerian sugar industry has been very slow for the past three decades while the domestic supply of sugar had lagged behind the demand for the product, inspite of the country’s comparative...

Author(s): Oni Timothy Olukunle

Capacity versus incentive factors explaining research productivity: Comparative and multilevel analysis of Nigeria and Ghana agricultural research systems

June 2016

This paper analyzes factors that explain variations in research productivity and outreach among 344 agricultural scientists in Nigeria and 237 agricultural scientists in Ghana using multilevel analysis. Education level, years of experience, and perceived adequacy of funding, physical and human resources are significant capacity actors explaining research productivity. In addition to capacity factors, incentives also...

Author(s): Ragasa Catherine

Women-Poverty-Productivity Nexus: A case study of women in riverine areas of Nigeria

May 2016

While many studies related to poverty and livelihoods of rural women have been carried out, very few have singled out women in riverine areas. The study examined the status of rural women in these areas of Ondo State using a case study approach. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 50 women from 6 villages of the Ilaje Ilumeje Community. Data were collected through personal observations and the use...

Author(s): Olajide O. Adeola,

Scaling out control of banana xanthomonas wilt from community to regional level: A case from Uganda’s largest banana growing region

May 2016

Banana xanthomonas wilt (BXW) has been successfully controlled in major banana growing areas between 2005 and 2008. This was due to combined use of participatory approaches for mobilising technology users such as farmer field schools and Integrated Agricultural Research for development (IAR4D) using cultural practices. However, the approaches focussed on small communities of about 30 to 300 farmers. Between 2010 and...

Author(s): Kubiriba J, Erima R. and Tushemereirwe W. K.

Have the fishing communities of Zanzibar Island benefited from increasing tourism development?

May 2016

This study was conducted at the coastal villages of Kamikazi, Matemwe and Nungi of Zanzibar Island to understand the influence of tourism on the income generating activities of the local fishers along the Coast of Zanzibar Island. The methodology mostly involved face-to-face interviews and structured questionnaires. Results indicate that increasing tourism has impacted fishers twofold: (1) Parts of their fishing grounds...

Author(s): John Sebit Benansio, Mathias Wolff,  Annette Breckwoldt, and Narriman Jiddawi

Adoption of integrated soil fertility management by groundnut farmers in Eastern Uganda

April 2016

Access to information and new technologies avails smallholder farmers an opportunity to improve their production decisions. However, access to information on technologies per se may not be relevant if the technologies are not adopted. This study was aimed at determining the factors that enable participants to access information on integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technologies and to apply these technologies...

Author(s): Jackline Bonabana-Wabbi, Hezron Mogoka, Onesmus Semalulu, Julian Kirinya and Basil Mugonola

Dichotomous dependent variable analysis of farmers’ decision on land utilization: A comparison between probit and linear probability models

April 2016

The study investigated what drives farmers’ decision not to utilise their land for cultivation. The study utilised data from Statistical Office of Kosovo (SOK) with sample size of 4187 agricultural households. To achieve the objective, distance and transaction costs were examined, controlling for socioeconomic characteristics. The dichotomous dependent variable, dummy=1 if land fallow otherwise=0 was regressed...

Author(s): Ochalibe, A. I., Oboh, V. and Ogah, M. O.

Review on small holders agriculture commercialization in Ethiopia: What are the driving factors to focused on?

April 2016

The current Ethiopian economy is based on agriculture and transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture, often referred to as the commercialization of agriculture. Commercialization of agriculture is therefore, the strategy Ethiopia is following to bring dynamic change to transform the traditional agriculture of smallholder farmers. As a result, this paper reviews the literature on smallholder commercialization...

Author(s): Afework Hagos and Endrias Geta

Comparative analysis of small scale irrigation schemes government funded and private small scale community project in Namibia

March 2016

The aim of this study was to examine factors influencing household income from small scale irrigation schemes using a case study of a government funded irrigation scheme of Etunda and a community initiated irrigation scheme of Epalela in Namibia. A weighted least square model was used to analyze data that was collected from household heads from the schemes. The key finding of this paper were that small scale irrigation...

Author(s): Zuwarimwe J., Teweldemedhin M. Y., Nafele E. and Katjiua M.

Economic efficiency of small scale soyabean farmers in Central Agricultural Zone, Nigeria: A Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier cost function approach

March 2016

This study employed the Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier cost function to measure the level of economic efficiency and its determinants in small scale soyabean production in Central Agricultural Zone of Nigeria. A multistage sampling procedure was used to select 485 soyabean farmers in the Zone, in 2010, from whom input-output data and their prices were obtained using the cost-route approach. The parameters of the...

Author(s): C. K. Biam, A. Okorie and S. U. Nwibo

Technical efficiency of smallholder wheat farmers: The case of Welmera district, Central Oromia, Ethiopia

February 2016

Increasing productivity through enhancing efficiency in cereal production in general and in wheat production in particular could be an important pace towards achieving food security. However, the strategic conceptual and empirical analysis in the context of the efficiency, which would guide policy makers and development practitioners in their efforts to revamp cereal productivity, is sparse. This study was undertaken to...

Author(s): Wudineh Getahun Tiruneh and Endrias Geta

Total factor productivity growth of Turkish agricultural sector from 2000 to 2014: Data envelopment malmquist analysis productivity index and growth accounting approach

February 2016

Despite the enormous diversification Turkey has made, agriculture still remains the backbone of its economy. Most of the successes Turkey’s economy has chalked came in the last 15 years; after 2000. The agricultural contribution to both gross domestic product and employment fell within this period. The answer to the state of the sector is not found in its contribution to gross domestic product or employment but...

Author(s): Abdul-Basit Tampuli ABUKARI, Burak ÖZTORNACI and Püren VEZÄ°ROÄžLU

Development of the poultry sector in Botswana: From good intentions to legal oligopoly

February 2016

This paper examines the development of the Botswana’s poultry sector, which has become the dominant meat industry in Botswana. The poultry sector is the most successful example of import substitution in Botswana with the country having achieved national self sufficiency. The paper describes the value chain in the industry and shows how, given the small size of the market, a high degree of market concentration...

Author(s): Roman Grynberg and Masedi Motswapong

An evaluation on the profitability of growing improved maize open pollinated varieties in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

January 2016

This study examined the profitability of growing Open Pollinated Varieties (OPVs) of maize against hybrids in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Studies have shown that improved OPVs of maize can be a valuable step for smallholder farmers in semi-arid areas as they are relatively drought tolerant when compared to hybrids. Thirteen maize varieties were evaluated extensively by on-farm trials in selected areas under...

Author(s): Melusi Sibanda, Abbyssinia Mushunje and Charles Shelton Mutengwa

Market diversification opportunities for namibian fish and fish products

December 2015

Decision Support Model (DSM) used to identify realistic export opportunities using a subsequent filtering process. The filtering process includes four sequential filters; the first filter includes a political and commercial risk assessment as well as a macro economic analysis.  The second filter consists of the detection of possible export opportunities by means of market size and both short- and long-term market...

Author(s): Teweldemedhin M. Y. and Chiripanhura B

Constraints and opportunities to upgrading Uganda’s rice markets: A value chain approach

December 2015

Most of Uganda’s rice is produced by smallholder farmers with the purpose of marketing for family income. However, poorly developed market system is a major problem to rice producers. Based in Namutumba district (Eastern Uganda), the study involved both structured interviews with several stakeholders and focus group discussions with three farmers groups and three rice miller groups, each comprising of ten people....

Author(s): Dan Makosa

Effects of non tariff barriers on market participation for maize smallholder farmers in Tanzania

November 2015

This study assessed the effects of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) on market participation for maize smallholder farmers in the major maize producing districts of Mbozi and Momba in Mbeya region located in the Southern Highland of Tanzania. A two-stage stratified sampling was used in selecting 240 smallholder farmers from the selected villages in two districts and interviewed. In estimating the effects of NTBs on market...

Author(s): Petro Maziku, Joseph Hella and Jeremiah Makindara

The status of food availability in the face of climate change and variability in Choke Mountain Watersheds, Central Ethiopia

October 2015

Food insecurity is an integral part of poverty in Ethiopia owing to agricultural production to be less able to adapt to climate change. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the status of food availability in the face of climate change and variability in Choke Mountain Watersheds, Central Ethiopia. For this purpose structured household questionnaire, Key Informant Interview, Group discussion and field...

Author(s): Demeku Mesfin Adane, Addisu Damtew Atnafe and Husen Maru Ahmed

The effect of roll back malaria programme on farmers productivity in Benue State, Nigeria

October 2015

The study analyzed the effect of Roll Back Malaria Programme (RBM) on farmer’s productivity in Benue State of Nigeria. Roll Back Malaria Programme is a global framework for coordinated action against malaria. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting 206 respondents from six Local Governments Areas. Data was collected with the aid of well structured questionnaires. The Cobb-Douglas stochastic...

Author(s): Obekpa H. O., Abu G. A. and Aye G. C.

Economic Determinants of the Performance of Public Irrigation Schemes in Kenya

October 2015

The study aimed at establishing the determinants of public irrigation scheme performance in Kenya and give policy recommendations using panel fixed effect regression model. The results indicated that, the size of land under irrigation had a significant (at 1%) and positive effect on the performance of public irrigation scheme. Similarly, per acre operations and maintenance cost that was collected in the scheme had a...

Author(s): E. Ngenoh, L. K. Kirui, B. K. Mutai, M. C. Maina and W. Koech

Root and tuber expansion programme and poverty reduction among farmers in Southwest Nigeria

October 2015

This paper evaluates the ex post impact of farmers’ adoption of Root and Tubers Expansion Program (RTEP) on yield, crop income and poverty in rural Nigeria by means of primary data collected from 161 households in 3 local government areas in South West Nigeria. Using FGT poverty measures and propensity score matching techniques the study found that poverty incidence is higher by about 23% among non beneficiaries...

Author(s): Okoruwa Victor Olusegun, Ogheneruemu Obi-Egbedi and Lydia Ololade Adeniran

Assessment of innovative market access options for banana value chain in Uganda

October 2015

Smallholder banana farmers depend almost entirely on fresh banana for their livelihoods in Uganda. Similarly, other banana value chain (BVC) actors specialize in the trade of the fresh fruit for income and employment. Therefore, improving the efficiency of market access options in Uganda’s banana sub-sector is one way that banana value chain actors can benefit through the sale of their banana products. In order to...

Author(s): Ariho Alex, Makindara Jeremia, Tumwesigye George and Sikira Anna

Crop commercialization and smallholder farmers` livelihood in Tigray region, Ethiopia

September 2015

This study examined the household level factors affecting the intensity of crop commercializationa and its impacts on livelihood of smallholder farmers. The study was conducted in six villages/tabiasb in the Tigray Region, Ethiopia. The estimated results showed that ownership of oxen, amount and quality of yield harvested, and training on crop marketing have a positive and significant effect on intensity of crop...

Author(s): Gebreslassie Hailua, Kebede Manjureb and Kiros-Meles Aymutc

Determinants of Access to Credit Financial Services by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya

September 2015

Credit financial access has been argued to be the engine of sustainable rural development and a factor necessary for household food security and poverty reduction. This study sought to establish the main factors that affect smallholder farmers’ access to credit financial services in Kenya. The logistic regression  results indicates that, the marginal effects of education level, occupation and access to...

Author(s): Joyce C. Kiplimo, Evans Ngenoh, Walter Koech and Jullius K. Bett

The effect of drought risk perception on local people coping decisions in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

September 2015

In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors influencing smallholders’ drought risk perception and coping to climate variability and change, this study utilized household level data collected from 384 households and employed Heckman selection model for its analysis. The study revealed that perceiving climate variability and change does not always guarantee coping and adaptation responses,...

Author(s): Yoseph Melka, Habtemariam Kassa, Mengistu Ketema, Degnet Abebaw and Ute Schmiedel

Technical, allocative, and economic efficiency among smallholder maize farmers in Southwestern Ethiopia: Parametric approach

August 2015

Maize is one of the major five staple cereal crops in Ethiopia. High productivity and efficacy in its production is critical to improve food security, reduce the level of poverty and achieve or maintain agricultural growth. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 385 household heads and interviewed using a structured questionnaire during 2013/2014 production year. The study estimates, technical, allocative...

Author(s): Sisay Debebe, Jema Haji, Degye Goshu and Abdi-Khalil Edriss

Socio-economic factors affecting adoption of early maturing maize varieties by small scale farmers in Safana Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria

August 2015

This paper examined the socio-economic factors affecting early maturing maize varieties adoption in Safana Local Government Area of Katsina State, Nigeria. Using random sampling techniques, 300 maize farmers were selected across 10 communities in the Local Government area. Out of the 300 respondents sampled 163 were non-adopters and 137 were adopters. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics, adoption...

Author(s): Ndaghu Ndonkeu Nathanel, Zakari Abdulsalam, Shehu Abdul Rahman and Tahirou Abdoulaye

Climate change, irrigation and agricultural activities in Mexico: A Ricardian analysis with panel data

July 2015

This article analyzes the potential impacts of climate change on agriculture in Mexico using a Ricardian model with panel data. The analysis uses economic data from 2,431 municipalities for the period 2003 to 2009. The study distinguishes between irrigated, rainfed and mixed farms and includes extreme weather events as an additional variable. The results indicate that irrigated farms are more vulnerable to temperature...

Author(s): Luis Miguel Galindo, Orlando Reyes and José Eduardo Alatorre

Factors influencing smallholder farmers’ decisions to participate in livestock markets in Namibia

July 2015

Across the world, sustained integration of smallholder farmers into commercial agriculture has empowered resource poor smallholder farmers to diversify their livelihoods into non-farm enterprises. The new enterprises have crystallized into socioeconomic development hubs. Associated with the growth of the agricultural sector in developed nations has been the development of highly market-integrated agribusinesses manned...

Author(s): J.  Zuwarimwe and S. M. Mbaai

Oil palm marketing, Nigeria-lessons to learn from Malaysia experience, opportunities and foreign direct investment in Cross River State

July 2015

Nigeria’s first goal is to meet the domestic demand and then if possible, seek to become competitive export market in palm oil production. Nigeria is potentially competitive in the domestic market if oil palm sector productivity is increased by shifting the technology frontier further. Transformation of the oil palm industry would enhance the overall economic development through the income and employment effects...

Author(s): N. E. Tiku and F. A. Bullem

Bio-economic modelling of the influence of family planning, land consolidation and soil erosion on farm production and food security in Rwanda

June 2015

Rwandan agriculture is not able to meet its population’s food needs from its own production, which results in food insecurity. Land degradation is a serious problem which contributes to a low and declining agricultural productivity and consequently to food insecurity. The objective of this paper is to develop a bio-economic model capable of analysing the impacts of soil erosion, family planning and land...

Author(s): J. C. Bidogeza, P. B. M. Berentsen, J. De Graaff and A. G. J. M. Oude Lansink

Metal silo grain storage technology and household food security in Kenya

June 2015

A treatment effect and ordered logit models were used to evaluate the impact of metal silo storage technology on household food security and factors influencing adoption of metal silo. Farmers’ perception of the effectiveness of metal silo against larger grain borer and maize weevil was also analyzed. The most important factor households considered when choosing a storage facility was effectiveness against storage...

Author(s): Gitonga, Z., De Groote, H. & Tefera, T.

A stochastic frontier analysis on farm level technical efficiency in Zimbabwe: A case of Marirangwe smallholder dairy farmers

June 2015

This study empirically investigates farm level technical efficiency of production and its associated determinants for Marirangwe smallholder dairy farmers, in Manyame district, Mashonaland east province in Zimbabwe. Using a stochastic production frontier model and a two step estimation approach, results for a sample of 27 smallholder farmers indicates that for the agricultural season 2013/2014, the average efficiency...

Author(s): Stein Masunda and Amanda Rudo Chiweshe

Effect of Aspillia africana leave on reproduction of rabbit

June 2015

This study investigated the effect of Aspillia africana leaves on reproduction of rabbit and was conducted at the rabbit section of the University Teaching and Research Farm of Joseph Ayo Babalola University Ikeji-Arakeji Osun State, Nigeria. The experiment has a complete randomized design with four treatments and one control. Each treatment has two replicates as well as the control. Twenty-four (24) cross-breed (New...

Author(s): Adedeji O. A., Ajibade M. O. and Folayan J. A.

Health-care access and utilization among rural households in Nigeria

May 2015

This study examined healthcare access and utilization among rural households in Ogun state, Southwestern Nigeria. Primary data were collected through the use of structured questionnaires. Multistage sampling technique was employed for the selection of 200 rural households. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and health care accessibility index. The results show that the mean age of the respondents was 46...

Author(s): Omonona Bolarin Titus, Obisesan Adekemi Adebisola and Aromolaran Oluwatosin Adeniji

Determinants of technical efficiency in smallholder soybean production in Bomet District, Kenya

May 2015

Increased soybean productivity has great potential for alleviating the perpetual problems of food and nutrition insecurity, poverty and unemployment among the rural households in Kenya. This study analyses the determinants of technical efficiency in smallholder soybean production in a rural farm setting in Bomet District, Kenya. Technical efficiency in this case is the ability of the smallholder farmer to maximize...

Author(s): Patrick K. Yegon, Lawrence K. Kibet and Job K. Lagat

The effect of olive mill effluent and organic compost on evaporation and temperature in medium and coarse textured pot soils

May 2015

The effects of olive mill effluent on evaporation assessed from the surface of two kinds of soil sandy loam and loam textures with two different temperatures. In the other hand five treatments for each texture were prepared in three replicates, including wastewater treatment stained with olives in a value and two percent, compost mixture treatments, mulch amount equal to 50 tons/h, control and water. Eleven treatments...

Author(s): Bagheri, M. R. and Movahedi Naeini, S. A. R.

Crop residue usage and its determinants in Kano State, Nigeria

April 2015

This study examined crop residue usage and determined factors influencing the decision to allocate as well as the intensity of crop residue in Kano state, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling technique was employed to select 160 farming households in three local government areas of the state. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics and double hurdle Tobit model. The results of the study showed that on a...

Author(s): Akinola, A. A., , Ayedun, B., Abubakar, M., Sheu, M. and Abdoulaye, T.

Bread wheat production in small scale irrigation users agro-pastoral households in Ethiopia: Case of Afar and Oromia regional state

April 2015

Conceptually, benefits of irrigation are realized through improvements in agricultural productivity. At household level, agricultural production increases could be followed by improvements in food consumption patterns. The goal of this research is to examine relationship between irrigation, production and consumption patterns for rural smallholders with pre-scaling up of bread wheat (Ga’ambo variety). A survey was...

Author(s): Aklilu Nigussie, Adem Kedir, Abiy Adisu, Geatnet Belay, Desta Gebrie and Kidane Desalegn 

Climate change and household food insecurity among fishing communities in the eastern coast of Zanzibar

April 2015

This paper examines the local vulnerability of households in two study communities in the east coast of Zanzibar focusing on food security, which is negatively impacted by climate variability and change. Findings have indicated that overall the local people in eastern coast of Zanzibar are insecure with respect to most major sources of food. Households solely dependent on natural resources through farming, fishing,...

Author(s): Makame O. Makame, Richard Y. M. Kangalawe and Layla A. Salum

Technical and allocative efficiency gains from integrated soil fertility management in the maize farming system of Kenya

April 2015

Declining land productivity and per capita food availability poses challenges to overcoming land degradation and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to identify ways of improving land productivity particularly among smallholders. This study investigated the contribution of integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) practices to both technical and allocative efficiencies in the maize farming system of Kenya....

Author(s): Morgan C. Mutoko, Cecilia N. Ritho, James K. Benhin and Oliver L. Mbatia

Determinants of the responsiveness of cooperative farmers to the cocoa renaissance programme in Osun State, Nigeria

April 2015

A key policy instrument in the cocoa transformation agenda is to provide subsidized inputs for farmers to replace old grooves to increase cocoa production in Nigeria. The study examined the role of cocoa marketing cooperatives in enhancing the incomes of its member patrons in Osun State under the cocoa renaissance policy. Multi stage sampling method was used to select 100 respondents from four cocoa produce marketing...

Author(s): Oluwasola O., Ige A. O. and D. Omodara

Agriculture – Industry linkages in the economy of Jammu and Kashmir India

April 2015

Agriculture serves as a primary sector of an economy which laid foundation for other sectors of an economy and with the support of industry sector the territory sector came in to existence. Thus the collective support of Agriculture and industry sector uplifts the economy and a sustainable growth of an economy is governed. The inter-linkage between Agriculture and industry sector from different aspects not only bring...

Author(s): Samir-Ul-Hassan, Kanhaiya Ahuja and Munasir hussain

A decision framework for resource poor smallholder farmers on maize production based on results from empirical studies in the coastal lowlands of Kenya

March 2015

Maize is a principal food crop in Kenya and the coastal lowlands. Choice of the enterprise at household level is influenced by the social position maize commands both as a staple food and trade facility or good while production patterns are dictated by various factors among them being resource endowment. Research in the recent past has provided technological recommendations that include fertilizer and pesticides use...

Author(s): Danda M. K., Muli B. M., De Groote H and Murithi F. M.

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