Journal of
Development and Agricultural Economics

  • Abbreviation: J. Dev. Agric. Econ.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2006-9774
  • DOI: 10.5897/JDAE
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 551

JDAE Articles

Dynamics and determinants of rural-urban migration in Southern Ethiopia

December 2017

This study examined the central characteristics of migrants and determinants of rural-urban migration in Southern Ethiopia based on snow ball sampling and a survey of 665 sample migrants using descriptive and econometric analysis. The results of this study showed that 76.2% of the migrants left their home at age ranges between 15 and 25 years. Similarly, it was found that 48% of the migrants were attending junior...

Author(s): Fassil Eshetu and Mohammed Beshir

Adoption of the new highly efficient cooking stoves by urban households in Zanzibar, Tanzania

November 2017

The study was aimed at ascertaining the adoption of New Highly Efficient Cooking Stoves (NHECS) imported from China by Zanzibar’s urban households for reducing cooking costs, health impacts and environmental degradation. Both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were collected using structured questionnaires, key informant interviews and field observation, and secondary data were collected from...

Author(s): Abdalla, H. Sheha and Makame, O. Makame

An analysis of multidimensional poverty and its determinants in rural Nigeria

November 2017

Human beings live to get happiness, livelihood, peace, security, safety, dignity and respect among others. Deprivation of any of these could be frustrating. Thus, attempts were made to determine multidimensional poverty index (MPI) of rural households and its decomposition by geo-political zones in Nigeria using the Alkire-Foster MPI approach. The result showed that the headcount poverty ratio H was 78.1% when K = 30 as...

Author(s): Joshua O. Amao, Kayode Ayantoye and Gbenga E. Fanifosi

Determinants of potato seed market supply through producer cooperatives in Haraghe, Ethiopia

November 2017

Seed producer cooperatives were initiated by the Integrated Seed Sector Development Program in five regions of Ethiopia including Oromia region since 2009 as an alternative mechanism to narrow the gap between seed supply and demand in the country. Seed marketing is one of the key activities of the program to satisfy the demand of farmers by providing quality seeds in the right place, at the right time and with the right...

Author(s): Alemayehu Oljira and Degye Goshu

Sustainability assessment of cattle herding in the North West Region of Cameroon, Central Africa

October 2017

Cattle herding in the North West Region of Cameroon is not sustainable in its present form. Although the role played by the cattle herding enterprise in the region is fundamental to the livelihood of cattle herders, consumers, the region, and others who depend on its products and services for survival; its sustainability unfortunately is not guaranteed due to several challenges. The repercussions of a breakdown of the...

Author(s): Tamufor Gideon, Wahidul K. Biswas and Deborah Pritchard

Profit efficiency analysis among groundnut farmers from Malawi

October 2017

This study analyzes the profit efficiency and its determinants in groundnut production, applying a stochastic profit frontier model on survey data collected from 400 groundnut growing households in Malawi. The result indicated that the inefficiencies in groundnut production hindered profitability in the sector. The profit efficiency ranged from 1% to 89% (with a mean of 45%). Significant association was observed between...

Author(s): Temesgen F. Bocher and Franklin Simtowe

Commodity prices, exchange rate and economic growth in West Africa: Case study of Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana

September 2017

Some West African countries have extensive access to natural resources and rely heavily on revenues from the export of these primary commodities. The heavy dependence of Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire on revenues from the exportation of cocoa raises the possibility that these economies are vulnerable to external commodity price fluctuations. This paper seeks to examine the relationship between cocoa prices, exchange rate...

Author(s): Julien Ofori-Abebrese, Robert Becker Pickson and Grace Ofori-Abebrese

Economic profitability and risk analyses of improved sorghum varieties in Tanzania

September 2017

This study uses survey data collected in 2012/2013 farming season to determine the net-returns and utility-efficient farm management practices for improved sorghum varieties adopted by small-scale farmers in Tanzania. The reference farm management practice was using JEMBE (handhole) for land cultivation and growing local varieties (landraces). Other farm management practices included using ox-plough for land cultivation...

Author(s): Aloyce R. Kaliba, Kizito Mazvimavi and Ghirmay S. Ghebreyesus

Profitability and sustainability of modern fish farming in Benin: An on-farm experimental appraisal of two production systems of Clarias gariepinus

September 2017

An on-farm experimental appraisal was done to compare the profitability of two production systems of Clarias gariepinus in Benin, and to assess the challenges of modern fish farming in West Africa. The results showed that fish farming using above ground tanks (AGT) was not profitable enough to reward production and recover capital costs, should the investments be fully bank loan-funded. At present feed prices, it cannot...

Author(s): Honfoga Barthélemy G., Tognon Isabelle A. and Chikou Antoine

Resource use efficiency in rice production in the lower Anambra irrigation project, Nigeria

August 2017

Increasing the output of rice to match the growing demand for rice is a global challenge, and with growing world population, the need becomes more pertinent. For developing countries with high population density like Nigeria, the importance of rice in the food security status of the population cannot be questioned. Although the production of rice in Nigeria has been increasing over time, there is need to move towards...

Author(s): Amaechina Ebele C. and Eboh Eric C.

Maximizing the economic return from Egypt's export of the most important vegetable crops in the foreign markets

August 2017

This study is set to examine the possibility of maximizing the returns of Egyptian vegetable exports: fresh potatoes, onions, and tomatoes, through the optimal distribution of exports to international markets. Linear programming model is formulated to determine the optimal distribution of exports among the importing countries. This model is restricted by export capacity, import capacity, and suggested organization...

Author(s): Bader, E. A. and Dawoud, S. D. Z.

Technical efficiency determinants of potato production: A study of rain-fed and irrigated smallholder farmers in Welmera district, Oromia, Ethiopia

August 2017

Increasing productivity through enhanced potato production efficiency could be an important move towards food security. In Ethiopia potato (Solanum tubersum L.) production levels and rates have been increasing due to the development and dissemination of improved potato technologies. Despite these efforts by the government, smallholders’ potato productivity has remained below potential. However, empirical studies...

Author(s): Wudineh Getahun Tiruneh, Abebe Chindi and Gebremedhin Woldegiorgis

Determinants of credit access by smallholder farmers in North-East Benin

August 2017

Financing agriculture is a key issue in rural development. Despite the efforts of the government to make credit services available and affordable in most of the rural areas, access to credit among smallholder farmers remains low. This paper analyzes the determinants of credit access by farmers in the North East, Benin. Primary data were collected from one hundred and twenty respondents randomly selected and interviewed...

Author(s): Perceval N. Assogba,, Senakpon E. Haroll Kokoye, Rosaine N. Yegbemey, Jonas A. Djenontin, Zacharie Tassou, Joanna Pardoe and Jacob A. Yabi

Interdependencies and sequential patterns in adoption of dairy technologies in Ethiopia

July 2017

In this paper adoption of dairy technologies in the Ethiopian highlands was examine using seemingly unrelated multivariate probit model which encompasses the effects of interdependencies of multiple technologies and unobserved heterogeneity in a unified framework. Model estimates show that household's likelihood of adopting dairy technologies is jointly determined by the observed household characteristics as well as...

Author(s): Kebebe Ergano

Profitability of apple enterprise among small-holder farmers in South Western Highland Agro-Ecological Zone (SWHAEZ) of Uganda

July 2017

The study evaluated the socio-economic viability and factors influencing profitability of apple enterprise under smallholder farming system in Uganda. A sample of 52 apple farming households was randomly selected in the districts of Uganda: Kabale, Kisoro, Kanungu and Rukungiri. Data were collected with the use of structured questionnaires, and analyzed using descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis and multiple...

Author(s): Ambrose Rwaheru Aheisibwe, Joseph Etiang, Denis Ashaba, Gerald Kwikiriza, Rose Mwesige, Ronald Muhereze and Alex Barekye

Differential impacts of an irrigation project: Case study of the Swar Dam Project in Yedashe, Bago region of Myanmar

July 2017

In Myanmar, the government has made a vast investment in the construction of dams to improve crop productivity and to ensure socioeconomic development. This study explores the differential impacts, in terms of socioeconomic conditions, of these investments for paddy farmers in Yedashe Township, in the Bago region in the south-central part of Myanmar. A farm survey among 95 respondents is used to compare the situation...

Author(s): Aung Tun Oo, Guido Van Huylenbroecka and Stijn Speelman

Dairy farmer households’ farm gate milk price heterogeneity in Kericho County, Kenya

July 2017

This study aimed at identifying factors affecting farm gate milk price heterogeneity in dairy farmer households in Kericho County, Kenya. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect data from 432 dairy farmer households. To estimate survey data, multivariate probit and selectivity biased mixed-effects linear regression models were used. Results showed that increased daily milk output sold and number of...

Author(s): Elijah K. Ng’eno,

Determinants of participation in fertilizer subsidy programme among rice farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria

June 2017

Nigerian farmers, including rice farmers, still record very low levels of fertilizer use thereby limiting productivity. Subsidies have been known to encourage fertilizer use among farmers. This paper examined the factors influencing rice farmer participation in the government’s fertilizer subsidy programme. Data was collected through the aid of a well-structured questionnaire from 263 rice farmers. Descriptive and...

Author(s): OBI-EGBEDI Ogheneruemu and BANKOLE Olaide Abdul-hameed

Climate sensitivities and farmland values in Nepal: A spatial panel Ricardian approach

June 2017

This study presents an application of the Ricardian approach to explore the impact of climate change on farmland values in Nepal. The Ricardian approach is estimated using a panel fixed effects model, and the outcome is compared against two separate models that account for spatial correlation: a spatial autoregressive (SAR) model; and a spatial error model (SEM). The findings suggest that Nepalese farmlands are...

Author(s): Samrat B. Kunwar and Alok K. Bohara

Determinants of household’s consumption preference for processed cocoyam in Enugu State, Nigeria

June 2017

Cocoyam is a nutritious food crop which is consumed in different parts of Nigeria. Its importance in the food systems of many communities in Nigeria, particularly among the Igbo people is based on its nutritive value and its relative ease in cultivation. Studies on the crop focused more on production and marketing without examining consumer behaviour. Although, an understanding of the determinants of the consumption of...

Author(s): Adeosun K. P., Amaechina E. C. and Nnaji A. P.

Determinants of information seeking behavior of smallholder farmers of Tanqa Abergelle woreda, Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

May 2017

The purpose of this research is to reveal the determinants of information seeking behavior of the Abergelle woreda smallholder farmers. In this information era, smallholder farmers’ information seeking behavior shows difference due to many reasons: change with their geographical location, economic, demographic, psychological and institutional factors. Till now, to the best of the author’s knowledge, no study...

Author(s): Gebru Brhane, Yared Mammo and Gebremichael Negusse

Do the initial land endowments lift people out of chronic and transient poverty? Evidence from central and Northern Mozambique

May 2017

This study aims at assessing the most prevalent type of poverty in rural Mozambique, and if the causes of chronic and transitory poverty are similar to recommended policy, strategies to address each of them caused by different factors. This paper concludes that, most poverty is transient (66%) than chronic (34%), unlike in earlier studies where the determinants of chronic and transient poverty are not necessarily...

Author(s): Raul Pitoro

Determinants of small-scale mango farmers’ market channel choices in Kenya: An application of the two-step Cragg’s estimation procedure

May 2017

The study estimates small-scale mango farmers’ choice of market channels using the Cragg’s two-step procedure where the farmer decides on the channel in the first step and the proportion sold to the selected channel in the second step. Cross section data was collected from a sample of 224 mango farmers selected through multistage sampling just after the mango season. The study was carried out in Makueni...

Author(s): Davis Nguthi Muthini, Rose Adhiambo Nyikal and David Jakinda Otieno

Spatial market integration and price transmission for papaya markets in Ethiopia

May 2017

This work aims to study the integration of papaya market, price transmission and price causality patterns with the help of Johansen co-integration test, vector error correction model and Granger causality test using 13 years average monthly prices of papaya.  Johansen co-integration tests indicate that four papaya markets significantly co-integrated with each other. Vector error correction (VEC) model test...

Author(s): Zewdie Habte

Assessing challenges of non-farm livelihood diversification in Boricha Woreda, Sidama zone

April 2017

This study was conducted to assess key livelihood strategies and to examine major socio-economic constraints that hinder households from engage in diversified activities, in two Peasant Associations of Boricha Woreda, Southern Ethiopia. From the two Peasant Associations, 110 households were selected through simple random sampling technique. Both primary and secondary data were collected to come up with dependable...

Author(s): Yohannes Yona and Tafese Mathewos

Determinants of Malawi’s cotton exports from 2001 to 2013

April 2017

This paper analysed the determinants of Malawi’s cotton exports, given the challenges faced by main traditional export crop which has rekindled interest in the development of cotton as a key export crop. The gravity model of trade was estimated following the Helpman, Melitz and Rubinsten (2008) framework. Using a balanced panel data, with the set of 36 countries that Malawi has exported cotton to for 13 years...

Author(s): E. Magombo, A. Edriss and M. A. R. Phiria

Refining the impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model: A study of the model’s “overlooked” risks, evidences from the impacts of Tekeze Dam, North East Ethiopia

April 2017

This article tried to question the viability of the impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model in assessing all risks development projects like dams brought to affected communities. It argued that in some cases the model fell short of showing exhaustively all risks communities faced as a result of grand development projects like dams. Taking the case of Tekeze dam in Ethiopia, it unearths some of the risks the...

Author(s): Andnet Gizachew

Contracts for Grain Biosecurity and Grain Quality

March 2017

The export of grain from Western Australia depends on a grain supply network that takes grain from farms to port through Cooperative Bulk Handling (CBH) receival and storage sites. The ability of the network to deliver pest free grain to port and ship depends on the quality of grain delivered by farmers and the efficacy of phosphine based fumigation in controlling stored grain pests. Unfortunately, over time, common...

Author(s): Hoda Abougamos, Ben White and Rohan Sadler

Economy-wide effects of drought on South African Agriculture: A computable general equilibrium (CGE) analysis

March 2017

South Africa’s agricultural sector is comprised of livestock, field crops and fruit in their order of size, in gross value terms. Agriculture in South Africa accounts for a relatively low share in the economy (3% of gross domestic product - GDP), 6% of employment and about 10% of exports (over R144 billion in 2015). Currently (2015/16), South Africa is experiencing the worst drought in over 100 years, which has...

Author(s): Sifiso Ntombela, Bonani Nyhodo, Simphiwe Ngqangweni, Heidi Phahlane and Moses Lubinga

Evaluation of the environmental and economic effectiveness of soil and water conservation practices in Wenago District, Southern Ethiopia

March 2017

Efforts towards soil and water conservation (SWC) goal were started since the mid-1970s and 80s to alleviate both the problems of erosion and low crop yield of Ethiopia.  The data were collected through structured questionnaire via face to face interview with 120 sampled household (HH) from Karasodity and Deko villages of Wenago district. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Heckman two-step...

Author(s): Yonas Ademe, Toyiba Shafi, Temesgen Kebede and Alemayehu Mullatu

Land fragmentation, agricultural productivity and implications for agricultural investments in the Southern Agricultural Growth Corridor of Tanzania (SAGCOT) region, Tanzania

February 2017

There are polarized evidences of the impact of agricultural land fragmentation on land productivity. On the one hand there viewpoints which consider land fragmentation to harm agricultural productivity. On the other hand there are counter thoughts which view land fragmentation as a positive situation which allows farmers to cultivate many environmental zones, minimise production risk and optimise the schedule for...

Author(s): Reuben M. J. Kadigi, Japhet J. Kashaigili, Agnes Sirima, Felix Kamau, Anna Sikira and Winfred Mbungu

Off-farm participation decision and its impact on crop yield in Northern Ethiopia

February 2017

One of the most important facets of off-farm activities is providing employment opportunities and additional income for rural households and thereby accommodates the seasonal and fluctuating agricultural production. Given this, identifying the underlying determinants of off-farm participation and its impact on crop yield was found to be of the essence. Cross sectional data was collected through structured questionnaire...

Author(s): Berihun Kassa, Bihon Kassa and Kibrom Aregawi

Farming household food storage, consumption and sales decision making under price risk in northern Uganda

January 2017

This study extended the agricultural household model to explain food storage, consumption and sales behaviors of farming households in northern Uganda using two major staple grains: finger millet and beans. Using secondary data collected by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics from 782 millet and beans producing households (388 households below poverty level and 394 households above poverty level), seemingly unrelated...

Author(s): Charles Owach, Godfrey Bahiigwa and Gabriel Elepu

Determinants of adoption of multiple climate change adaptation strategies in Southern Malawi: An ordered probit analysis

January 2017

This paper aimed to identify factors affecting adoption of multiple climate change adaptation strategies in Southern Malawi. An ordered probit model was estimated using survey data collected in Nsanje and Balaka districts in 2014-2015 cropping season. Age of household head, total land area owned, petty trading and formal employment were found to reduce the probability of adopting more than two CSA strategies. Farmers...

Author(s): Francis Maguza-Tembo, Julius Mangison, Abdil Khalil Edris and Edwin Kenamu

Agricultural input supply challenges of smallholder irrigation schemes in Zimbabwe

December 2016

This article focuses on irrigation agriculture as a critical adaptation strategy to climate change and population pressure in Africa. Smallholder irrigation schemes have been prioritised as a rural development model by many developing countries in the past five decades. However, the majority of the irrigation schemes have remained unsustainable and contributed very little towards the attainment of food security and...

Author(s): Solomon Mutambara

Women in palm oil processing in South-East Nigeriachallenges and prospects in a dwindling economy

November 2016

This study investigated the role of women in palm oil processing in Anambra State Nigeria. It sought answers to the question as to the factors that hinder the productive role of women in palm oil processing and the measures necessary to realise the potentials of women in palm oil processing. Specifically, the study examined the socio-economic characteristics of the women and their effects on palm oil production;...

Author(s): E. C. Nwankwo

Constraints to growth of micro and small-scale enterprises in Ghana: A case of street food enterprises

October 2016

The aim of the paper was to identify the factors that constrain growth of street food enterprises in Ghana. The study achieved this by using panel data from two surveys to estimate the effect of constraints that are self-reported by street food vendors from Kumasi and Tamale metropolises of Ghana on growth of their businesses. Results of the study found inadequate managerial skills and financial constraints to...

Author(s): Osei Mensah, James, Ohene-Yankyera, Kwasi and Aidoo, Robert

Contribution of remittance to the improvement of rural households’ livelihoods: The case of Tehuledere Woreda, Northeastern Ethiopia

October 2016

Migration is one among the many livelihood strategies that households employ to diversify their sources of livelihood. Remittances that are channeled by migrants play an important role in improving the living standard of households, and reducing their level of vulnerability. This study discusses the impact of international remittance on the livelihood of the rural poor in Tehuledere Woreda, Northeastern Ethiopia....

Author(s): Kerime Mohammed and Degefa Tolossa

Determinants of off farm income diversification and its effect on rural household poverty in Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia

October 2016

Data from 500 rural farm households were collected using multistage sampling technique from Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia and the determinants of off farm income diversification and its effect on rural poverty were examined with the help of logit and multinomial logit model. The regression result revealed that age, education, access to infrastructure, livestock ownerships, credits uses, and farm income are the main...

Author(s): Fassil Eshetu and Elias Mekonnen

How do the risk preferences of smallholder farmers affect the attractiveness of restoration activities? Evidence from forest and agricultural land in Rwanda

September 2016

In 2011, the country of Rwanda made a commitment to restore the productivity of 2 million hectares of degraded forest and agricultural land. Agroforestry and improved woodlot management activities were proposed to restore the ecological and economic productivity of agricultural and forestland in Rwanda, but the activities have not been evaluated in terms of their financial profitability, profitability risk, or...

Author(s): Michael Verdone and Andrew Seidl

Trends and regional disparity of maize production in India

September 2016

This study was aimed at investigating trends, instability, and regional variations of maize production in major producing states of India. Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR), Cuddy Della Valley Index (CDVI), and decomposition analysis were used to examine the data ranging from 1980 to 1981 and 2011 to 2012. The study revealed that area under maize in India has increased from 5.89 to 9.19 Mha and production has...

Author(s): Birhanu Ayalew and I. Sekar

Migration, marital arrangements and consumption smoothing among Burkinabè farm households

August 2016

Risk coping is a severe challenge for households in developing countries, particularly for farm household because income is stochastically variable and credit markets are incomplete. Because of lack of formal systems to cope with risk, households rely on informal arrangements such as migration and marriage. This paper contributes to the literature of risk-coping strategies by examining how migration and marital...

Author(s): Pam Zahonogo

Economic benefits of biological control of cassava green mite (CGM) in Ghana

July 2016

The aim of the study was to evaluate the economic impact of biological control of cassava green mite (CGM) in Ghana by using the natural enemy Typhlodromalus manihoti. Both primary and secondary data were used for analysis. In total, 714 cassava producing households were drawn from 17 districts in seven regions of Ghana by employing a combination of proportional, purposive, simple random, and systematic random sampling...

Author(s): Robert Aidoo, Enoch Adjei Osekre, Vincent Logah and John-Eudes Andivi Bakang

Capacity versus incentive factors explaining research productivity: Comparative and multilevel analysis of Nigeria and Ghana agricultural research systems

June 2016

This paper analyzes factors that explain variations in research productivity and outreach among 344 agricultural scientists in Nigeria and 237 agricultural scientists in Ghana using multilevel analysis. Education level, years of experience, and perceived adequacy of funding, physical and human resources are significant capacity actors explaining research productivity. In addition to capacity factors, incentives also...

Author(s): Ragasa Catherine

Economic analysis of profitability and competitiveness of sugarcane enterprise in Nigeria

June 2016

In Nigeria, cultivation of Industrial Sugarcane has suffered a serious setback due to poor performance of government established and owned sugar companies. Arising from over-dependence on sugar importation, development in the Nigerian sugar industry has been very slow for the past three decades while the domestic supply of sugar had lagged behind the demand for the product, inspite of the country’s comparative...

Author(s): Oni Timothy Olukunle

Women-Poverty-Productivity Nexus: A case study of women in riverine areas of Nigeria

May 2016

While many studies related to poverty and livelihoods of rural women have been carried out, very few have singled out women in riverine areas. The study examined the status of rural women in these areas of Ondo State using a case study approach. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 50 women from 6 villages of the Ilaje Ilumeje Community. Data were collected through personal observations and the use...

Author(s): Olajide O. Adeola,

Scaling out control of banana xanthomonas wilt from community to regional level: A case from Uganda’s largest banana growing region

May 2016

Banana xanthomonas wilt (BXW) has been successfully controlled in major banana growing areas between 2005 and 2008. This was due to combined use of participatory approaches for mobilising technology users such as farmer field schools and Integrated Agricultural Research for development (IAR4D) using cultural practices. However, the approaches focussed on small communities of about 30 to 300 farmers. Between 2010 and...

Author(s): Kubiriba J, Erima R. and Tushemereirwe W. K.

Have the fishing communities of Zanzibar Island benefited from increasing tourism development?

May 2016

This study was conducted at the coastal villages of Kamikazi, Matemwe and Nungi of Zanzibar Island to understand the influence of tourism on the income generating activities of the local fishers along the Coast of Zanzibar Island. The methodology mostly involved face-to-face interviews and structured questionnaires. Results indicate that increasing tourism has impacted fishers twofold: (1) Parts of their fishing grounds...

Author(s): John Sebit Benansio, Mathias Wolff,  Annette Breckwoldt, and Narriman Jiddawi

Review on small holders agriculture commercialization in Ethiopia: What are the driving factors to focused on?

April 2016

The current Ethiopian economy is based on agriculture and transition from subsistence to commercial agriculture, often referred to as the commercialization of agriculture. Commercialization of agriculture is therefore, the strategy Ethiopia is following to bring dynamic change to transform the traditional agriculture of smallholder farmers. As a result, this paper reviews the literature on smallholder commercialization...

Author(s): Afework Hagos and Endrias Geta

Adoption of integrated soil fertility management by groundnut farmers in Eastern Uganda

April 2016

Access to information and new technologies avails smallholder farmers an opportunity to improve their production decisions. However, access to information on technologies per se may not be relevant if the technologies are not adopted. This study was aimed at determining the factors that enable participants to access information on integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technologies and to apply these technologies...

Author(s): Jackline Bonabana-Wabbi, Hezron Mogoka, Onesmus Semalulu, Julian Kirinya and Basil Mugonola

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