Journal of
Public Health and Epidemiology

  • Abbreviation: J. Public Health Epidemiol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2316
  • DOI: 10.5897/JPHE
  • Start Year: 2009

JPHE Articles in press

HIV-positive status disclosure with stable sexual partner at Gabriel Touré University Hospital, Bamako, Mali, 2017

Article in Press

Preventing new cases of HIV infection and mother-to-child HIV transmission requires knowledge of the factors associated with HIV-positive status disclosure with the sexual partner. Our objective was to determine the factors associated with HIV-positive status disclosure with the stable sexual partner at Gabriel Touré University Hospital, Mali. We conducted a cross-sectional study from February to March 2017 at Gabriel...

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Awareness of sleeping sickness by the populations of the Bipindi historic focus: lessons for ownership and sustainability of control interventions

Article in Press

Socio-economic and socio-demographic factors have been considered as critical in disease epidemiology and need to be taken into consideration when designing health interventions. It is therefore strongly recommended to investigate population ownership to ensure sustainability of a given intervention. To this end, we conducted a household-based cross sectional survey to assess knowledge and perceptions regarding the...

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IMPACT OF FAMILY PLANNING ON MATERNAL AND INFANT MORTALITY IN CAMEROON: PROTOCOL FOR A CLUSTERED NON-RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Article in Press

Background: The study aims to assess the impact of family planning on maternal and infant mortality in Tiko CDC plantation camp. Methods: This is a clustered non-randomized controlled trial with a predetermined intervention site (Tiko CDC plantation camp) and a control site (Pena Mboko camp). Four clusters were randomly selected in each group using simple ballot and the intervention administered in all clusters in the...

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ENVIRONMENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOBACTERIUM ULCERANS INFECTION IN THE DISTRICT OF LALO IN BENIN: A CASE-CONTROL STUDY

Article in Press

The mode of transmission of Buruli ulcer (BU) is not yet well understood. This study aimed to identify risk factors for BU in the district of Lalo in Benin. This is a case-control study taking into account all cases of BU detected from 2013 to 2018 and treated at the Buruli’s ulcer Screening and Treatment Center (CDTUB) of Lalo. For each case, two controls were matched according to age and sex. Conditional logistic...

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Assessment of healthcare waste management practice and factors that influence it among health professionals in governement hospitals’ of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2019.

Article in Press

Background: Healthcare waste (HCW) management is one of the biggest problems the globe is facing especially in developing nations related to its increasing amount of generation and existence of ineffective technology and poor management. The impact associated with poor HCW management is wide ranging from environmental pollution to transmission of diseases including infection like typhoid and cholera to more deadly diseases...

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A survey of COVID-19 Risk Perceptions, Oyo State, Nigeria: Implications for Development of Evidence-based Communication Strategies

Article in Press

Background: In Oyo State, Nigeria, Covid-19 poses a significant public health problem. Despite the recommendation of the state government, anecdotal evidence indicates compliance with the preventive steps was low. Therefore, the need to determine the views of public risk on COVID-19 and the degree of adherence to the preventive measures of covid-19 that are essential for the creation of risk communications and the...

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Ordinal logistic regression analysis of correlates of hypertension severity: by using the data of Gondar university referral hospital, North West Ethiopia.

Article in Press

Background:-Hypertension is the force of blood pushing up against the walls of blood vessels and it is defined as a systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg.It is estimated to cause 9.4 million deaths every year. Aim of the study: This study aimed to conduct ordinal logistic regression analysis of hypertension severity and identifying associated factors for severity of...

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Healthcare Waste Management in Nigeria: Comparing what Healthcare Workers in Public and Private Health Facilities Practice

Article in Press

Background: Globally, hospital waste is of importance as its hazardous effects may cause disease transmission. Despite this, most studies done in Nigeria asses it in limited scope. Therefore, this study assess and compare hospital waste management practices in public and private health institutions in South-western, Nigeria. Materials: A cross-sectional study was conducted among healthcare workers at the local government...

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Determinants of knowledge, attitude and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in the Talangaï Health District, Congo : a cross sectional analytical survey

Article in Press

Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended for 6 months of age also with continued breastfeeding for 2 years of age or beyong. Many African mothers breastfeed their babies beyond one year, but EBF for up to six months is still not widely practiced. In the Republic of Congo, according to the Congo Demographic Health Survey, the prevalence of EBF was 32.9%. The knowledge of infants’ mothers could be insufficient to...

Author(s):Determinants ; Knowledge Attitudes Practices; Exclusive breastfeeding; Talangai; Congo

EXPLORING THE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE REGARDING HEPATITIS B INFECTION AMONG RESIDENTS OF OGBOMOSHO, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA: A CROSS- SECTIONAL STUDY

Article in Press

Introduction : Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes a global health problem with a high level of morbidity and mortality. Attitudes related to health are influenced by varying aspects of knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP). The purpose of this study was to examine the KAP Level of residents towards HBV infection in Ogbomosho, Southwest Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive locality-based study was...

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Pregnancy induced hypertension and associated factors among pregnant women in Madda Walabu University Goba referral hospital, Southeast Ethiopia

Article in Press

Background: Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy poses a huge challenge worldwide. More specifically, developing countries like Ethiopia had double burden of pregnancy induced hypertension. The aim of the study was assessed of prevalence pregnancy induced hypertension and associated factors among pregnant mothers in Madda Walabu University Goba Referral Hospital, Southeast Ethiopia, 2019. Methods: A hospital based...

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Impact of HIV-AIDS on Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome in Southern Ethiopia- A retrospective analysis

Article in Press

Background; Globally, the tuberculosis treatment success rate was worse for HIV-positive TB patients compared with HIV- negative TB patients. This study aimed at determining the impact of HIV-AIDS on and other associated factors with TB treatment outcomes. Methods; A retrospective analysis five years of tuberculosis data from four public health facilities in Hossana Town was done. A total of 604 study participants were by...

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Antifeedant efficacy of Menthaspicata aqueous extracts on fall armyworm (Spodopterafrugiperda).

Article in Press

Background: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major public health problem and a principal cause of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age worldwide. The 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is the major intervention strategy used in the prevention of new infections. Though the vaccines have been in use since 2011in Cameroon, lower respiratory tract infections remain major causes of morbidity and...

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CASUAL SEX PRACTICE, DETERMINANTS AND ITS ADVERSE CONSQUENCES AMONG YOUTHS IN DESSIE TOWN, NORTH EAST ETHIOPIA.

Article in Press

Casual sex is a new trend in the lives of today’s young adults. Some of the serious consequences that can go along with casual sex are depression, unplanned pregnancy, unsafe abortion, HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of casual sex experiences and its adverse consequences among college students in Dessie town, north east Ethiopia, 2019. Methods: This...

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Excess deaths within the context of COVID 19 pandemic in Aden in May 2020

Article in Press

Background: The civil registration office in Aden (at Southern Yemen) reported unexpected high number of deaths in May 2020 that made people and authorities worry about this tragedy and the causes behind it. Objectives: to explore the relationship of these excess deaths with COVID 19. Methods: The is a review of the death related data from the civil registration records in Aden. Other sources reviewed were the...

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Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated risk factors among pregnant women in Maracha District, Uganda

Article in Press

Introduction: Globally, tobacco use has become the largest public health threat that kills around 7 million people annually, of which about 6 million deaths are due to direct tobacco use, and 890,000 are attributed to passive smoking. This study assessed prevalence and associated risk factors of tobacco use among pregnant women 15 to 49 years. Methods: Health facility-based analytical cross-sectional study was...

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Examine the Association between Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Some Selected Personal Variables among Office Workers in East Gojam Zone

Article in Press

The purpose of this study was examining association between work related musculoskeletal disorders and some selected personal variables among office workers. Descriptive survey study design would be carried ou. Source populations of the study were the registered office secretarial and administrator with any age and sex and currently on practice. Regarding data collection tools: Demographic information and the key variables...

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INEQUALITY OF CHILD ACCESS TO HEALTH FACILITIES IN RURAL NIGERIA

Article in Press

Health plays a crucial role for economic development because it is an indispensable basic need of life which enables people to carry out their day to day activities effectively. Health system in Nigeria has been structured such that the poor cannot have access to the utilization of health infrastructure in rural areas. The study investigated the inequality of child access to health facilities in rural household of Nigeria...

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Knowledge and adherence to social distancing guidelines in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic

Article in Press

Social distancing refers to actions or steps taken by an individual or groups of individuals with the main purpose of reducing physical and social interaction to curb the spread of infectious disease. Aims This study sought to determine Nigerians knowledge of social distancing and why most people do not adhere to the guidelines amid the COVID-19 pandemic. Method A non-probability sampling method was used for this...

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Assessing the determining factors of place choice at delivery among women of child bearing age in NunuKumba woreda, East Wollega Zone, Oromia Region, Western Ethiopia.

Article in Press

Background:-The lack of skilled attendants at birth accounts for two million preventable maternal deaths, stillbirths and newborn deaths each year. Aim:-This study assessed the magnitude and factors affecting place of delivery among women of child bearing age in Nunu Kumba woreda, Western Ethiopia. Method: - Community based cross sectional quantitative household survey was employed. A pre-tested structured questionnaire...

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MOTIVATION THERAPY TO PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS IN IMPROVING COMPLIANCE CONSUMING ANTI TUBERCULOSIS DRUGS

Article in Press

The discovery of TB cases in 2016 was 658 and the number of patients treated was 470 patients and Puskesmas Semanding became the health center with the largest number of patients reaching 40 patients with the number treated 35 patients. Which means it has not reached 100% of patients treated, and found 2 of them experienced resistance or including the MDR-TB group. OAT resistance is due to patients not adhering to the...

Author(s):Karyo , Kusno Ferianto

Global emergency of COVID-19 epidemic and comparison of facilities in Pakistan

Article in Press

Abstract: Newly, novel coronavirus, which is famous by name SARS-COV-19, appeared in Wuhan, China. Although controlled measures had been taken, this virus spread is still enduring in many other countries. Current data of affected people by this deadly virus is changing hourly and can be tracked only on websites. Globally efforts are being made in fast diagnosis and isolation of affected people as well as to search the...

Author(s):siddique Farhan

Parental influence and the sexual behaviour of adolescents in public secondary schools in Oyo State, Nigeria

Article in Press

Purpose Several studies outside the African continent have documented associations between the various forms of parental influence and adolescent sexual risk behaviour. This study was therefore conducted to identify the existing form(s) of parental influence and the prevalent/sexual behaviours among adolescents in public secondary schools in Nigeria and determine the association existing between the parental influence and...

Author(s):Oluwatomi Owopetu Iken

Barriers for Full Immunization Coverage among under Five Years Children in Mogadishu, Somalia

Article in Press

Background: Immunization is amongst the most cost effective public health interventions for reducing childhood morbidity and mortality. However globally 9 million deaths of children occur as a result of vaccine-preventable disease in which 4.4 million are from sub-Saharan region. Therefore, this study aimed to assess barriers for complete vaccination coverage among under five years children in Mogadishu, Somalia....

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Prevalence and associated factors of double burden of malnutrition among school adolescents 10-19 years in Burayu town, Oromia special zone, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Background: The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) is an emerging nutritional problem of the coexistence of underweight, and overweight and/or obesity affecting adolescents from both affluent and poor countries and nutritional status of adolescents in Ethiopia is not well documented, and they are the neglected segment of the population. Objective: The study aimed to assess prevalence and associated factors of double...

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Assessing students’ nutritional junk food behaviors on interaction through their knowledge, attitudes, and amounting energy acquirements of upper secondary students in Thailand

Article in Press

To assess students’ nutritional junk food behaviors on interaction through their knowledge, attitudes, and amounting energy acquirements on junk food and the nutritional status of 429 upper secondary students in Thailand with the 20-item Questionnaire on Students’ Knowledge on Junk Food and Nutrition (QSKJFN), the 20-item Questionnaire on Nutritional Energy Quality on Junk Food (QNEQJF), and the 20-item Test of...

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Multivariate Logistic Regression Models on Children Malnutrition in Ethiopia: Data of 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey

Article in Press

Malnutrition at the early stages of life can lower child resistance to infections, increase child morbidity and mortality, and decrease mental development and cognitive achievement. Adequate nutrition is the keystone of survival, health and development not only the current generations but also the ones to come. Child malnutrition is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The main objective of this study was...

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Scoping Review on the Implementation of HIV management Programs for Adolescents Living with HIV.

Article in Press

Unlike to adults, adolescents often have poorer rates of viral suppression and long-term immunologic recovery. They often face unique developmental, psychological, psychosocial, and sexuality challenges as they are still developing physically, mentally, and sexually. The general purpose of this present study is to review and update information on implementation of HIV program for Adolescent living with HIV. A comprehensive...

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Prevalence of Underfive Malnutrition Measured Through Newly proposed Indices of Anthropometric Failure, and Its determinants: A Community Based Cross-Sectional Study in Habero Subzone, Eritrea

Article in Press

Background. Under-five children are one of the most vulnerable groups in any society to nutritional deficiencies due to many factors ranging from low birth weight and maternal ill health to socioeconomic and various environmental factors. Though it remains common all over the world, under-five malnutrition is particularly a very serious public health problem of developing countries like Eritrea. In this study CIAF was...

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Prevalence of pressure ulcer among Hospitalized adult patients in Ethiopia. Systematic review and meta-analysis

Article in Press

Background: Pressure ulcer is a common problem that causes significant pain and additional costs, but has not been given appropriate high priority in hospitalized patients. They were individual studies on the prevalence of pressure ulcer among hospitalized patients in Ethiopia. But, there is no study that shows the national estimate of pressure ulcer among hospitalized patients. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the...

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Factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis treatment failure in Togo, 2015-2016

Article in Press

Introduction: Tuberculosis (TB) treatment failure compromises its elimination as recommended by Sustainable Development Goals. Our purpose was to determine the factors associated with pulmonary tuberculosis treatment failure in Togo between 2015 and 2016. Methods: We conducted an unmatched case-control study on cases of pulmonary TB under treatment at all of 47 TB Diagnostic and Treatment Centers (DTC) in Togo between 2015...

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Genetic Diversity and Geographical Distribution of Strains of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Complex in Ethiopia: Review

Article in Press

Ethiopia, tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major infectious disease with wide spread geographic distribution and endemic nature, which has been well documented both in human and livestock of the country. TB in livestock has an important economic and public health significance, although the actual prevalence of animal tuberculosis at national level is yet unknown. Identification of the etiology of tuberculosis in different...

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Assessing tuberculosis preventive methods in the Somme department: collaboration between the Tuberculosis Control Center and its partners

Article in Press

Introduction: The Tuberculosis Control Center (TBCC) is responsible for prevention of the TB in France. The collaboration of this center with its partners has not yet been studied. Methods: All notified cases of TB and all of their contacts screened between 2007 and 2011 were retrospectively included. Communication between actors in tuberculosis control was analyzed. Results: Of the 175 reported cases, the TBCC sent 85.1%...

Author(s):Pauline Kiswendsida Yanogo, Jean-Luc Schmit, Anne Sophie Fresse, Olivier Ganry,

Patient satisfaction with outpatient department services in Asella Teaching Referral Hospital, South East Ethiopia

Article in Press

Patient satisfaction is patient’s judgment of their desires and expectations of health care. This study determined patient satisfaction with outpatient department services. Institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Data was entered into Epi info version 7 computer software and transported to SPSS version 20 computer program...

Author(s):Mohammed Suleiman Obsa ,Tahir Aman Worji

Obesity and overweight with their associated risk factors among type ii diabetes mellitus patients attending dessie hospitals, Northeast Ethiopia, 2017

Article in Press

Obesity and overweight are public health problems, which are most common nutritional disorders in developing and developed countries and becoming increasingly prevalent in developing countries. Obesity and overweight attributes for morbidity and mortality of millions of people with type II diabetes patients around the globe by making them vulnerable to other diseases and complications. Diabetes occurs when the body cannot...

Author(s):Selam Yimer Mohammed, Yeshimebet Ali Dawed , Foziya Mohammed Hussein

AWARENESS AND PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT FOR BREAST CANCER PATIENTS AND IT’S PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS

Article in Press

Breast cancer is the most common and steeply rising cancer among women in Bangladesh. This qualitative observational study is done to assess the psychosocial sufferings of breast cancer patients. The purpose of the study is to evaluate eradication of social obstacles and to amending the overall level of distress and stigma associated with breast cancer. The observational prospective study was conducted on 240 patients aged...

Author(s):Nazat Sultana

Determinants of focused antenatal care service satisfaction in public health facilities in Ethiopia, 2018: a mixed study design

Article in Press

Ethiopia has been implementing focused antenatal care package to reduce maternal and child deaths. The quality of antenatal care service has being not resolved widely due to unstandardized measurement. Hence, this study assessed determinants of focused antenatal care service satisfaction in Public Health Facilities of West Guji Zone, Ethiopia, 2018. a facility based cross-sectional triangulated with qualitative study...

Author(s):Melkamu Bekele Selgado, Yimer Hottesa Dukale & Damene Darota Amamo

Knowledge and Practice of Essential Newborn Care Among Postnatal Mothers in Addis Ababa City Health Centers, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Essential newborn care is a wide-ranging approach planned to improve the health of newborn through interventions after pregnancy. In Ethiopia, about 120,000 newborns die every year in the first weeks of life which accounts for 42% of all deaths of under-five mortality. Therefore this study is aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of essential newborn care practices among mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A...

Author(s):Workinesh Daba, Tsion Alemu, Mulugeta Shegaze Shimbre & Behailu Tsegaye

Diagnose at admission and factors associated with management outcome of neonate in Ayder referral hospital, Northern Ethiopia

Article in Press

Children less than 5 years old commonly occurred during neonatal period and majority of the deaths occurring in developing countries particularly sub Saharan African countries. To assess cause of neonate admission and factors associated with management outcomes among neonates admitted in the neonatal care unit of Ayder referral hospital in Tigray region ; Northern -Ethiopia. Institutional based cross-sectional record...

Author(s):Masresha Leta Serbesa and Maleda Tefera Iffa

FAMILY ENGAGEMENT: A MODEL FOR IMPROVED HEALTH OUTCOMES IN PUERTO RICO

Article in Press

Puerto Rico has been undergoing economic and health crises, which were exacerbated by damages from hurricane Maria in 2017. Family is central to the Latino culture, in which it is commonly referred to as familismo. The term implies strong family ties and engagement in all aspects of Puerto Rican life. This study examined how it could be harnessed as a powerful tool to improve health outcomes in that context. The...

Author(s):Carlos Omar Nesbeth, Wilfredo Alonso Acevedo, Vincent Agboto, Elmang Nchako, Manuel Acevedo Pena

Alarming levels of ototoxicity among multidrug resistant tuberculosis patients on intensive phase of treatment at specialist treatment centers in South Western, Nigeria

Article in Press

Management of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients remains a challenge in the control of tuberculosis worldwide. MDR-TB patients require long term treatment with drugs that cause various adverse effects especially ototoxicity associated with aminoglycoside. Current treatment guidelines still include aminoglycosides use especially in developing countries. However, there is dearth of information regarding...

Author(s):Bamgboye Eniola Adetola

PREDISPOSING FACTORS IN ADOPTION AND UTILIZATION OF NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHOD AMONG WOMEN IN OWERRI MAIN MARKET, IMO STATE, NIGERIA

Article in Press

This study investigates the predisposing factors in adoption and utilization of Natural Family Planning (NFP) methods among women in Owerri Main Market. The main objectives was to determine the physiological basis of NFP methods, the advantages and disadvantages of NFP methods and to identify the predisposing factors in adoption and practice of NFP among women. Two hundred Fifty women were selected for the study through...

Author(s):Onuoha Udonna Peace

Treatment success and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Public Private Mixed Directly Observed Treatment Short course facilities in Oromia region, Ethiopia

Article in Press

Background: Evaluation of treatment success of tuberculosis treatment is used as a major indicator of program quality. However, treatment outcome of tuberculosis patients has not consistently been evaluated yet in private health facilities working with the public health facilities in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment (PPM-DOTS) facilities. The objective of the study was to assess treatment success and associated...

Author(s):Belay Bayissasse and Getachew Gebreselassie

Factors affecting utilization of antenatal care services and institutional delivery at Koghum in Jos South, Plateau State, Nigeria

Article in Press

Access to antenatal care services promotes safe motherhood and delivery. It also improves maternal and neonatal outcomes. This study identified factors influencing the utilization of antenatal care services and health facility-based delivery. Methods: A community based cross sectional survey was conducted. Households were enumerated, and a systematic sampling method was used to selected one in four HHs.A sample size of...

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Assessment of Influenza Outbreak in Kallu Dstrict of Amhara Region, Northwestern Ethiopia

Article in Press

Background: Influenza is a respiratory infection caused by influenza viruses. It spread from person-to-person by contact with respiratory secretions. Worldwide, annual influenza epidemics result in an estimated 3–5 million cases of severe illness and 250,000-500,000 deaths every year. Influenza outbreak occurred in Kallu district, due to this; we had assessment and identify associated risk factors with the...

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A FIVE-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF BREAST CANCER AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING JIMMA UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER, SOUTHWESTERN ETHIOPIA.

Article in Press

Aims/purpose: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, with nearly 2.1 million new cases diagnosed in 2018 The incidence of breast cancer has been increasing worldwide and in Africa it is currently the most common cancer in women. The exact figure of breast cancer cases in Ethiopia is not known but studies show that its incidence has been increasing over the past decades. This study has sought to...

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Willingness of Community to Enroll in Community Based Health Insurance and Associated Factors at House Hold Level in Siraro District, West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

Article in Press

To ensure that health care is accessible to all, Community Based Health Insurance (CBHI) should be promoted and more people should be encouraged to participate. To assess willingness of community to enroll in community based health insurance and factors associated at household level in Siraro District, Ethiopia, 2017. Community based cross sectional study design was employed for 413 household samples. Simple random...

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The Assessment of Knowledge and Awareness of North-West University Students, Based on Rotavirus Infections.  

Article in Press

Rotavirus is the one of most diarrhoeal cases in developing countries for both children and adults. The transmission is via the faecal-oral-route; unwashed or poorly washed hands can be the source of contamination to people, water and food. Zoonotic infection also contributes to the increase of rotavirus infection. In order to avoid risk of infection, it is critical to be informed about the virus. This study aims to assess...

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Framework for Establishing Data Gaps: A case for Sustainable Development Goal 3

Article in Press

An efficient and effective programme should be developed based on solid evidence. There is always a paucity of data/evidence on which to design programmes. In many cases, however, even with abundance of data and evidence, it is difficult to assess what data gaps need to be addressed to ensure as much required data as possible is available and has been used to develop an evidence based programme. United Nations Member...

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PREVALENCE OF MALARIA INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS IN GIMBIE ADVENTIST HOSPITAL WESTERN WOLLEGA, OROMIA REGIONAL STATE, ETHIOPIA

Article in Press

Background and aims of study: Malaria is a disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young African children including Ethiopia. Therefore, this study designs to assess the prevalence of malaria infection among patients attending Gimbie Adventist Hospital in West Wollega, Oromia, Ethiopia. Method: Descriptive...

Author(s):Hawassa University, Department of Biology, P. O. Box: , Hawassa, Ethiopia.

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