African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12278

Table of Content: 17 May 2010; 9(20)

May 2010

Food irradiation: Applications, public acceptance and global trade

    Food irradiation is the treatment of food products by a definite kind of energy. The process involves exposing the packed or bulked food to the rays of the sun. Food irradiation processing that entails combating post-harvest losses, curtailing food-borne disease and overcoming quarantine barriers has been pursued since the mid-50s. The scientific basis and technological adaptation of the...

Author(s): Hossein Ahari Mostafavi, Hadi Fathollahi, Farahnaz Motamedi and Seyed Mahyar Mirmajlessi

May 2010

A review on some causes of male infertility

  This work reviews a wide range of factors that are responsible for male infertility. The normal human sperm cell measures 50-60 μm in length and has head, neck, middle piece and tail. The head is oval in shape and is 3-5 μm in length and 2-3 μm in width. The mid-piece is slender, straight and regular in outline. It is aligned with the long axis of the head, and is approximately 7-8 μm in length....

Author(s): F. O. Olayemi

May 2010

Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteriocin, from production to their application: An overview

  Antimicrobial proteinaceous compounds such as bacteriocins or bacteriocin-like compounds produced by Lactobacillus acidophilus are largely known and have been found to have potent antimicrobial activities toward closely related bacteria and undesirable harmful microorganisms. They are useful in the fields of food preservation or safety, health care, and pharmaceutical applications. The...

Author(s): Zaheer Ahmed, Yanping Wang, Qiaoling Cheng and M. Imran

May 2010

A simplified, cost- and time-effective procedure for genotyping pearl millet in resource-limited laboratories

  Procedures for DNA extraction and genotyping of large plant populations are cumbersome and expensive for resource-limited laboratories. Through eliminating or changing several steps used in DNA extraction, PCR amplification and PAGE electrophoresis in pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.], we developed a modified procedure that reduced the cost of consumables and required less time without...

Author(s): Surinder K Gulia, Bharat Singh and Jeffrey P. Wilson

May 2010

Isolation and identification of bacterial glum blotch and leaf blight on wheat (Triticum aestivum L) in Iran

  Basal glume blotch and leaf blight of wheat caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv.atrofaciens and P. syringae pv. syringae respectively are the bacterial diseases of wheat in Iran. The disease causes damage on wheat which leads to lots of yield and crop losses in the host plants. During the spring and summer of 2005-2006 different wheat fields in Guilan province...

Author(s): Mostafa Niknejad Kazempour, Maesomeh Kheyrgoo, Hassan Pedramfarand Heshmat Rahimian

May 2010

Surface sterilant effect on the regeneration efficiency from cotyledon explants of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) varieties adapted to eastern and Southern Africa

  Five groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) varieties - ICGV-12991, ICGV-99568, ICGV-90704, CG-2 and Chalimbana - that are adapted to Eastern and Southern Africa were compared to variety JL 24 for their regeneration response in tissue culture. Sodium hypochlorite and mercuric chloride were compared for efficiency as sterilizing agents and subsequent effect on regeneration. All five varieties formed shoot...

Author(s): Susan Muthoni Maina, Quinata Emongor, Kiran K. Sharma, Simon T. Gichuki, Moses Gathaara and Santie M. de Villiers

May 2010

Morphological characterization of the pollens of the selected species of Genus Prunus Linn. from Northern Pakistan

  A total of 6 species of Prunus were studied for the morphological characterization of the pollens through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The species were collected from various parts of Northern Pakistan. The species included Prunus armeniaca L., Prunus bokhariensis Royle ex C.K. Schn, Prunus avium L., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, Prunus...

Author(s): Syed Aneel Gilani, Rizwana Aleem Qureshi, Amir M. Khan and Daniel Potter

May 2010

Genetic variation within the olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivar Oblica detected using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers

  Oblica is the predominant olive cultivar in Croatia, spread widely in all the olive growing regions. Morphological variability within the cultivar is well documented but often it has been attributed to environmental factors rather than to genetic ones. In order to investigate intracultivar variability on the molecular level, olive samples from 4 growing regions in Croatia (South Dalmatia, Middle Dalmatia,...

Author(s): Frane Strikic, Dunja Bandelj Mavsar, Slavko Perica, Zlatko Cmelik, Zlatko Satovic and Branka Javornik

May 2010

Preparation and characterization of keratin-K2Ti6O13 whisker composite film

  Wool is the most popular natural material. In the textile industries, a lot of waste wool fibres and their products induce actions which lead to the regeneration of wool keratin materials. However, the most significant limitations may be the poor fracture resistance of neat keratin materials. Traditionally, biopolymer was used to enhance the mechanical property of wool keratin material, but it limits the...

Author(s):   Textile Materials and Technology Laboratory, Donghua University, Shanghai, , P. R. China. College of Mechanical Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, , P. R. China. College of Garment and Art Design, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing, Zhejiang, , P. R. China.

May 2010

One of frontiers in agricultural and environmental biotechnology for the arid regions: Micro-pressure drip irrigation technology theory and practices

  With the goal of reducing cost and energy consumption of drip irrigation systems, the relationship between pressure and cost of drip irrigation systems, as well as the feasibility of reducing the operating pressure, were analyzed. The irrigation quality and reliability of micro-pressure drip irrigation systems were also studied. A theory of micro-pressure drip irrigation technology is proposed, and the...

Author(s): Niu Wenquan, Wu Pute, Li Jing and Shao Hongbo,

May 2010

Cloning and characterization of thermostable-deoxy-D-ribose-5-phosphate aldolase from Hyperthermus butylicus

  The 2-deoxy-D-ribose-5-phosphate aldolase gene from Hyperthermus butylicuswas subcloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to apparent homogeneity. Analysis of the sequence of gene revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 672 base pairs encoding 237 amino acids predicted to yield a protein of molecular mass 26.4 kDa. The encoded protein was overexpressed in E. coli and...

Author(s): Qiuyan Wang, Rong Chen, Pengfei Du, Huili Wu, Xiaolin Pei, Bing Yang, Lihua Yang, Lifeng Huang, Jinhua Liu and Tian Xie

May 2010

A study on some efficient parameters in batch fermentation of ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevesiae SC1 extracted from fermented siahe sardasht pomace

  Siahe sardasht grape is famous variety of grape in Iran that is used for red grape juice concentrate. The pomace of this grape (as byproduct of fruit juice concentrate industry) is a favorable medium for growth of all type of yeasts. The ethanol production using Saccharomyces cerevesiae SC1 extracted from fermented siahe sardasht grape pomace was studied in batch fermentation. The best ethanol...

Author(s): Maziar Safaei Asli

May 2010

Nutritional evaluation of yoghurt prepared by different starter cultures and their physiochemical analysis during storage

  Yoghurt was prepared with two different types of starter cultures; Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The preparation was made by 3, 4 and 5% concentrations. It was stored at 4°C for 12 days. To analyze the effect of the two different cultures and their concentrations on the properties of yoghurt, different physio-chemical tests were performed. These two starter culture...

Author(s): Ammara Hassan and Imran Amjad

May 2010

Influence of nitrogen sources on production of b-galactosidase by Aspergillus niger

  The study was undertaken to enhance the production of b-galactosidase using five organic nitrogen sources with wheat bran as a substrate under solid state fermentation. The microbial source Aspergillus niger and its DG-resistant mutant that were grown in medium with initial pH of 5.5 in 250 ml flasks at 30°C for 144 h and sample was harvested after every 24 h and analysed for substrate...

Author(s): M. Siddique Awan, Shahzad Akbar Khan, Z. U. Rehman, Azhar Saleem, S. M. Rana and M. I. Rajoka,

May 2010

Comparative study of cocoa-sweat and that of pure honey

  The comparative study of cocoa-sweat and that of pure honey were carried out to show whether the taste of former could be accepted as an alternative to the later, using the hedonic scale of sensory evaluation. The fructose components of cocoa-sweat were compared with that of pure honey, using spectrophotometer absorbency method. The cocoa-sweat concentrated for 10 min had a closed value of fructose content...

Author(s): A. Taiga, S. I. Afolabi and C. O. C. Agwu

May 2010

Plasma kinetics of intravenously administered lactose-in-saline in healthy and Trypanosoma congolense infected rams

  The effect of Trypanosoma congolense infection on plasma kinetics of intravenously administered lactose was investigated in apparently healthy and T. congolense infected rams. Four rams infected with T. congolense and 4 uninfected rams were each infused intravenously with repeated doses of 0.5 g/kg body weight lactose in saline, thrice daily at 4 h interval. Blood was collected...

Author(s): Chechet, Gloria Dada, Umar, Ismail, Nok, Andrew, Jonathan, Adamu Saniand Omage, J. J.

May 2010

Biochemical characterization of a cefotaxime-hydrolysing β-lactamase encoded by a conjugative plasmid

  During the nosocomials infections occurring in the intensive care unit of the military hospital of Tunis in 2005, the Enterobacter cloacae BW 1150 strain was isolated from a stool culture. This strain was found to have a high level resistance to broad-spectrum β-lactams. Resistance profile against the various families of antibiotics was determined using the disc diffusion...

Author(s): Amel Bourouis, Hela Chihi, Nehed Ben-Achour, Chérifa Belhadj, Mohamed Ben-Moussa and Omrane Belhadj

May 2010

Toxicological evaluation of precocene II isolated from Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) in Sprague Dawley rats

 Precocene II (6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2-chromene) was the main constituent isolated from Ageratum conyzoides L. and reportedly possessed antifungal activity. The study investigated the isolation, purification and toxicological effects of precocene II from A. conyzoides in Sprague Dawley rats. Precocene II was isolated from the petroleum ether fraction of the plant and the structure was...

Author(s): Abiodun Humphrey Adebayo, Guang Zhi Zeng, Yu Mei Zhang, Chang Jiu Ji, Afolabi Akintunde Akindahunsi and Ning Hua Tan

May 2010

Effects of morphine on replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2

  Several drugs are being used in treatment of HSV (Herpesviridae) infection in human but still introducing an effective safe drug is desirable. We investigated the inhibitory effect of morphine on replication of HSV in vitro. The results indicated that a concentration of up to 200 µg/ml morphine had a limited effect on Vero cell viability. At this concentration, the growth of HSV was inhibited...

Author(s): Seyed Hamid Reza Monavari and Mahmoud Shamsi Shahrabadi

May 2010

The role of sialoadenectomy and epıdermal growth factor (EGF) in skin development

 In this study, the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on skin development was investigated. A total of 24 adult female Spraque-Dawley rats were used in the study. The rats were divided into 3 equal groups as control, sialoadenectomy (SX) and sialoadenectomy+epidermal growth factor (SX+EGF). Sialoadenectomy was performed on the other groups except control. After a 21-day recovery period, subjects were made to...

Author(s): Mehmet İrfan Karadede, Yusuf Nergiz and Ayfer Aktaş

May 2010

Antifungal activities of selected Venda medicinal plants against Candida albicans, Candida krusei and Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from South African AIDS patients

  Infection with HIV leads to immunosuppression and up to 90% of HIV infected individuals contract fungal infections of which 10 - 20% die as a direct consequence of these infections. In the present study, 76 extracts from 30 plants used by Venda traditional healers for the treatment of fungal related ailments, were tested for their antifungal activities against clinical isolates of Candida...

Author(s): A. Samie, T. Tambani, E. Harshfield, E. Green, J. N. Ramalivhana and P. O. Bessong

May 2010

Process optimization for the enrichment of α-linolenic acid from silkworm pupal oil using response surface methodology

 α-Linolenic acid (ALA) was widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry, as an important medical material. In the present study, the mixed fatty acids (MFAs) extracted from desilked silkworm pupal oil were used raw materials for enriching ALA, using urea clathration method; their preparation process was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The research results indicated that the...

Author(s): Jun Wang, Fu-An Wu, Yao Liang and Meng Wang

May 2010

Synthesis and characterization of reactive dye-cassava mesocarp cation exchange resins

  The synthesis of triazine based reactive dyes was carried out. The resultant dyes were characterized by thin layers chromatography, molecular weight, infrared and ultra- violet spectroscopy, and used in dyeing cassava mesocarp to produce dye modified cellulosic substrates. The dyed substrates were tested for dye fixation, fastness (acid, alkali, wash) and solvent stability. Results obtained show that the dyes...

Author(s): Akaranta, O. and Agiri, G. O.

May 2010

Determining sucrose recovery in Saccarrum officinarum L. using regression and correlation analyses

 Fourteen genotypes of sugarcane, Saccharium officinarum (L.), were evaluated for twelve characters and analyzed for genotypic correlation, phenotypic correlation and coefficients of determination were calculated through stepwise regression analysis to construct the regression models for selection of better sugarcane types.High variation was observed for all the characters including sucrose contents....

Author(s): Muhammad Kashif Ilyas and Farooq Ahmad Khan

May 2010

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of polyphenols from ethnomedicinal plants of Nigeria

  The antioxidant properties and antimicrobial potential of three ethnomedicinal plants, (Momordica charanta, Senna alata and Nauclea lafifolia) extracted with acetone were investigated. Polyphenols from the medicinal plants were screened for their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities against pathogenic micro organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Esherichia...

Author(s): Israel O Okoro, Auguster Osagie and Edith O. Asibor

May 2010

Potency of fibrolytic bacteria isolated from Indonesian sheep’s colon as inoculum for biogas and methane production

  Three fibrolytic bacteria were isolated from sheep’s colon using cellulose (b), xylan(c) and lignin (d) as selective substrates. The potency of fibrolytic was identified by Subbarao methods. These isolates were then used both in pure and mixed culture with cattle cellulolytic bacteria (a) from the previous research. The isolates were subsequently...

Author(s): A. Wahyudi, L. Hendraningsih and A. Malik

May 2010

Effect of length of productive life on genetic trend of milk production and profitability: A simulation study

  Longevity is an important economic trait in dairy cattle. Including this trait in a breeding scheme, increases profit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between length of productive life (LPL), genetic trend of milk production and profitability of herds. LPL has been defined as time from first calving to culling.A Dynamic stochastic model was used to simulate dairy herd system. This model...

Author(s): M. Honarvar, A. Nejati Javaremi, S. R. Miraei Ashtiani and M. Dehghan Banadaki

May 2010

Comparative studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the aqueous extracts from fresh, dried and boiled berries of Solanum aculeastrum Dunal.

 The berry of Solanum aculeastrum Dunal. is used for treating diseases such as rheumatism, gonorrhea, breast cancer and other inflammatory-related ailments in South Africa. The aqueous extracts of the fresh, dried and boiled berries at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight was evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in male Wistar rats using carrageenan-induced paw oedema as well as formalin,...

Author(s): O. M. Aboyade, D. S. Grierson and A. J. Afolayan