African Journal of
Food Science

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Food Sci.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0794
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJFS
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 917

Full Length Research Paper

Effect of flour types and flour concentrations on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of an indigenous senescent plantain cake (ofam)

Doreen Dedo Adi
  • Doreen Dedo Adi
  • Faculty of Vocational Education, Akenten Appiah – Menka University of Skills Training and Entrepreneurial Development, Kumasi, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
Ibok N. Oduro
  • Ibok N. Oduro
  • Department of Food Science and Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, PMB Kumasi, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar
Charles Tortoe
  • Charles Tortoe
  • Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Food Research Institute, Accra, Ghana.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 09 February 2021
  •  Accepted: 12 April 2021
  •  Published: 30 April 2021


Ofam is a Ghanaian indigenous cakelike product made mainly from senescent plantain and local flours from cereal, grain and/or tuber sources. The effect of three flour types (steeped corn flour (SCF), roasted corn flour (RCF) and kokonte flour (KF)) and flour concentrations (20, 17.5, 15, 12.5 and 10%) on the physicochemical characteristics and sensory acceptability ofam was investigated. Parameters such as moisture, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), viscosity, colour and texture profile were measured using standard methods.  A 50-member untrained panelist was used to conduct a sensory acceptability test using a 9-point hedonic scale. Ofam batter were characterised by high moisture content (ranging from 52.7 to 55.1%), pH (ranging from 5.4 to 5.5), TSS (ranging from 2.30 to 2.62) and a dark colouration (L-value ranging from 30.39 to 45.55). The flour type and concentration affected the viscosity of the batter which also influenced the hardness of ofam. RCF ofam was the hardest (1541.49 g Force) while KF ofam was the softest (966.79 g Force).  Generally, RCF ofam was the most preferred (7.0) whilst KF of was the least preferred (6.68). Also, ofam with flour inclusion of 15% was also the most preferred (7.89) while products with 20% flour inclusion were the least preferred (6.47). This would form the basis for the standardisation of the product and formulation of a convenient powder mix suitable for ofam.


Key words: Senescent plantain, ofam, batter, physicochemical, sensory.