International Journal of
Psychology and Counselling

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. Psychol. Couns.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2499
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJPC
  • Start Year: 2009
  • Published Articles: 221

Full Length Research Paper

The impact of bullying and victimization among deaf students in residential schools and distressful behaviors of deaf students

Danielle Thompson-Ochoa
  • Danielle Thompson-Ochoa
  • Department of Counseling, School of Education, Business and Human Services, Gallaudet University, United States
  • Google Scholar
Patricia Hodgdon
  • Patricia Hodgdon
  • Hartford Public Schools, Vermont, United States.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 03 March 2019
  •  Accepted: 07 May 2019
  •  Published: 31 May 2019


Bullying and victimization remains a persistent phenomenon in schools within the United States of America. However, no studies have focused on bullying and victimization among deaf students. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the frequency of bullying and victimization among deaf children. Further, the study examined deaf children who could read and write at their respective grade levels or higher. Specifically, the possibility of these children experiencing distress linked to bullying and victimization was investigated, and whether the same level of distress varied steadily across grade levels. The study was conducted at eight U.S. residential schools for the deaf using the Reynolds Bully Victimization Scales for Schools. Twenty-one males and fifteen females participated in the study. Participants were sampled based on their reading and writing skills at fourth or fifth grade and above. There were 35 participants from 10th to 12th grade. Participants in 10th grade reported a significantly higher occurrence of bullying than those in 12th grade. Taken together, these findings indicated a strong correlation between victimization and total cases of distress, bullying, and levels of externalizing distress, as well as between victimization and the intensity of internalizing distress.

Key words: Victimization, bullying, deaf, residential schools.