Journal of
Agricultural Extension and Rural Development

  • Abbreviation: J. Agric. Ext. Rural Dev
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2170
  • DOI: 10.5897/JAERD
  • Start Year: 2009

JAERD Articles

March 2019

Famers perceptions on effectiveness of extension delivery approaches to Mbororo female livestock farmers in North-West Region Cameroon

The purpose of the study is to determine farmers’ perception on agricultural extension delivery approaches on Mbororo female livestock farmers in North-West Cameroon. Primary data was collected using structured questionnaires established to Mbororo women. Interviews guides were used to get more information on the perception of Bororo female livestock farmer on effectiveness extension services delivery. Secondary...

Author(s): Loveline Enjoh Forbang, Fonteh Amungwa and Tohnian Nobert Lengha  

March 2019

Determinants of agriculture participation among tertiary institution youths in Ghana

The study was conducted to examine the determinants of agriculture participation among tertiary institutions youth in Ghana. The study first, examined what factors influences youth decision to participate in agriculture activities and second, the intensity of participation of those youths who are participating in agriculture. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select respondents for the study. Data collected...

Author(s): Martinson Ankrah Twumasi, Yuansheng Jiang, Monica Owusu Acheampong  

March 2019

An overview of agricultural extension in Botswana and needed reforms

Crops and livestock sectors constitute agriculture in Botswana. The sectors are dominated by small-scale farmers engaged in traditional production systems. National Agriculture Policy calls for an effective extension service to ensure continued farmer capacity building, increased efficiency and production by the sectors. Several extension approaches adopted over 79 years have been replaced one after the other since 1926...

Author(s): Flora Modiane Tladi-Sekgwama  

February 2019

Determinants and challenges of rural livelihood diversification in Ethiopia: Qualitative review

The review was made on determinants and challenges of livelihood diversification in Ethiopia. Different published and unpublished documents were collected through different search engines from different databases, Google scholar and Google. After thorough reading, 42 papers were used to review out of 182 papers. There are a lot of pushes and pull factors that affect rural livelihood diversification. Some determinants,...

Author(s): Wondim Awoke Kassa  

February 2019

Adoption determinants of row planting for wheat production in Munesa District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Agriculture takes the lion’s share in the economic development of many developing countries, including Ethiopia. Agricultural policy of the years has focused on supporting the introduction of improved technologies to boost production and reduce food insecurity. However, outcomes of such agricultural policies have been influenced by different factors of which low adoption of improved agricultural technology is a...

Author(s): Adunea Dinku and Fekadu Beyene  

February 2019

Assessment of forest management practices and livelihood income around Arero dry Afromontane forest of Southern Oromia Region in Borana Zone, South Ethiopia

Forest resources are often well managed by local communities either through their own initiatives using traditional institutions or being organized with assistances from development actors such as non-governmental organization (NGOs) and governmental organizations (GOs). The study was aimed to assess forest management practices, and the contribution of forest resource for communities’ livelihoods of Arero forest...

Author(s): Wakshum Shiferaw, Mulugeta Limenih and Tadesse Woldemariam Gole  

January 2019

Review on gendered perspective of household’s participation in agricultural activities in Ethiopia

Gender is a crosscutting issue that attracts the attention of development professionals, policy makers and politicians. It is due to the fact that in any development, interventions involvement of women has become compulsory. To this end, considering the roles of men and women is very important, and gender roles vary across culture. In Ethiopia where agriculture is the backbone of the economy, the participation of women...

Author(s): Fenet Belayand Alemayehu Oljira   

January 2019

Enhancing sorghum yield through demonstration of improved sorghum varieties in Tanqua-Abergelle Wereda, Central Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

With the aim of improving food security through enhanced production and productivity of sorghum a demonstration of two improved sorghum varieties (Chare and Melkam) was conducted in two selected Kebelle (Shekha-Tekhli and Agbe) of Tanqua-Abergelle Wereda. A total of 100 farming households (88 male and 12 female) who are beneficiaries of the Productive Safety Net Program were purposively selected. Each farmer planted the...

Author(s): Gebru Brhane, Fantaye Belay, Tsegay Gebreselassie and Daniel Desta  

December 2018

Gender roles in fisheries post-harvesting activities in catch-locations within Coastal Areas of Lagos State Nigeria

This study examined the gender roles in Fisheries Post-harvesting Activities (FPhA), which stems from a significant knowledge gap regarding gender roles in the subsistence fishery industry. The research was conducted in five catch-locations within the coastal areas of Lagos State, Nigeria, namely: Ikorodu, Badagry, Epe, Lekki and Makoko. The respondents were selected using purposive and snowballing sampling techniques....

Author(s): Olusola Benson, Isaac Ambee, Oluwatoyin Akinnigbagbe, Bunmi Omotuyi and Adepeju Solagbade  

December 2018

Determinants of commercialization of teff crop in Abay Chomen District, Horo Guduru wallaga zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia

This paper aims to identify factors affecting teff commercialization in Abay Chomen District using primary data collected during February and January 2017 from teff sampled household producers. Semi structured interview schedule and Focus Group Discussion were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics and heckman two stage models were used to analyze the data collected. The paper showed that among sixteen...

Author(s): Edosa Tadesa Leta  

December 2018

Beekeeping management practices and gap analysis of beekeepers at different agro-ecological zones of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia

The study was conducted to assess beekeeping practices, seasonal colony management gaps in eastern, south-east and central zones of Tigray region in northern Ethiopia. About 384 beekeepers were interviewed. The trend of honeybee colonies indicated an increase in the last five years but with variables (72%) in honey production. Majority (77.3%) of beekeepers inspected their apiary and honeybee colonies externally and...

Author(s): Guesh Godifey, Amssalu Bezabeh, Hailu Mazengia and Yayneshet Tesfay

November 2018

Pastoralist’s perceptions on the impact of Vachellia karrooencroachment in communal rangelands of the Eastern Cape, South Africa

The study was conducted in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The objective of this study was to evaluate farmers’ perceptions on the impact of Vachellia karroo encroachment on livestock production and vegetation. Forty farmers (62% females and 38% males) were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. The results showed that goats and cattle were mainly kept for cash sales and sheep for wool...

Author(s): S. Tokozwayo, U. Gulwa, T. Thubela, N. Nyangiwe and  K. Mopipi  

November 2018

Factors affecting smallholder farmers’ participation in degraded forest rehabilitation practices. The case of Gemachis District, West Hararghe Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

The global forest coverage has declined from year to year due to human and natural factors. To address the problems, different rehabilitation strategies have been implemented through government and community in a coordinated manner. This study investigated factors affecting smallholder farmers’ participation in degraded forest rehabilitation at participatory forest management in Ethiopia. We used two-stage...

Author(s): Asfaw Zewdu and Fekadu Beyene  

October 2018

Public discourse on Khat (Catha edulis) production in Ethiopia: Review

Agriculture is the most important economic activity and employment opportunity in Ethiopia. Globally, the country is the largest producer of Khat. The producers and consumers of Khat are increasing combined with earning for the national exports. Despite several controversies have continued on Khat practice, the legal stance of the Ethiopian government and studies on environmental impact are minimal. The review results...

Author(s): Wuletaw Mekuria  

October 2018

Review of challenges and opportunities for dairy cattle farming under mixed system of Homa Bay County, Western Kenya

The objective of this review was to determine challenges and opportunities facing dairy cattle production in Homa Bay County, which lies within the Lake Victoria basin. Three cattle production systems were included: farms keeping indigenous breeds; farms keeping crosses of indigenous and exotic breeds and farms keeping exotic breeds. Both primary and secondary data were collected using questionnaires, key informant...

Author(s): Joshua Orungo Onono and Augustine Ochieng  

October 2018

Livelihood diversification strategies among the Borana pastoral households of Yabello District, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

This study is aimed at identifying and describing the existing livelihood options and the determinants of the choice of the households’ livelihood strategies in the pastoral areas of Yabello District. The data for this study were obtained  from  a  survey  of  180  household  heads  selected  using  simple random sampling technique in the year 2016. The key...

Author(s): Doyo Kena Doyo, Eric Ndemo Okoyo and Tesfaye Lemma  

September 2018

Success story of implementing the self-sustaining agricultural extension system in Rwanda

Rwanda is implementing the self-sustaining extension system through Farmer Field Schools (FFS) and Farmer Promoters (FP) approaches. The objective of this paper was to find out the impact of self-sustaining extension system in order to help stakeholders to improve its current implementation. The methodology includes a desk review of reports, face to face interview with 60 participants and 5 focus group discussions...

Author(s): Musabyimana Innocent, Ranganathan, Sankaranarayanan and Hilda Vasanthakaalam  

September 2018

On-Farm Demonstration of Improved Varieties of Faba bean (Vicia fabaL.) in Gemechis, Chiro and Tullo Districts of West Hararghe Zone, Oromia National Regional State of Ethiopia

The experiment was carried out in Gemechis, Chiro and Tulo districts of West Hararghe Zone with the objectives of enhancing production and productivity of faba bean on farmers’ fields and to improve linkage among stakeholders and create awareness on improved faba bean varieties. Three kebeles were selected purposively based on faba bean production potential. Accordingly, Walenso Defo kebele from Gemechis,...

Author(s): Fekede Gemechu, Mideksa Babu and Asfaw Zewdu  

August 2018

Technological gaps of agricultural extension: Mismatch between demand and supply in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia

This paper examines technological challenges of the agricultural extension in North Gondar Zone of Ethiopia. Understanding technological gaps in public agricultural extension helps to devise demand driven and compatible technologies to existing contexts of farmers. The study used cross sectional survey using quantitative and qualitative techniques. Data were generated from primary and secondary sources using household...

Author(s): Genanew Agitew, Sisay Yehuala, Asegid Demissie and Abebe Dagnew  

August 2018

Factors affecting paddy farmers' perception of utilizing agricultural machines in Indonesia

This paper aims to identify factors affecting farmers’ negative perception on utilizing rice transplanters and combine harvesters. To this end, data obtained from interview survey in the westernmost part of Java Island, Banten Province was analyzed, where agricultural labor wages increase at a faster pace as compared to other regions and a rapid diffusion of agricultural mechanization is anticipated. The...

Author(s): Ani Pullaila, Eka Rastiyanto Amrullah, Yati Astuti and Akira Ishida  

August 2018

Participatory on farm evaluation of improved mungbean technologies in the low land areas of North Shewa Zone Amhara Region, Ethiopia

The study was conducted in four selected potential areas of North Shewa zone namely; Kewot, Efratana gidim, Ensaro and Merhabete district. The main objective of the study was to evaluate, select the best performing mungbean varieties and to assess farmer’s technology preference. The experiment was done using three improved varieties namely; Rasa (N-26), NLV-1, and Arkebe improved varieties and local variety as a...

Author(s): Yehuala Kassa, Daneil Admasu, Abiro Tigabe, Amsalu Abie and Dejene Mamo  

August 2018

Choices and implications of livelihood diversification strategies on smallholder farmers’ income in Saesietsaeda Emba District, Eastern Tigray Region of Ethiopia

Farmers’ life without livelihood diversification into off-farm and non-farm income activities becomes difficult due to unstable and meagre agricultural context of the study area. Farm income alone cannot feed the ever increasing population. Hence, livelihood diversification is a matter of life or death for majority of the households in the study district. The objectives of the study were to identify household...

Author(s): Gebrehiwot Weldegebrial Gebru, Hyacinth Ementa Ichoku and Philip Ogbonnia Phil-Eze  

July 2018

Prospects and challenges of management of smallholders' Wovwe Rice Irrigation Scheme in Malawi through participatory approach

The concept of participatory approach in irrigation management was adopted in Malawi in the mid 1990s, but fully implemented in early 2000. This research was designed to analyze the challenges and benefits which Water User Associations (WUAs) encountered during implementation of irrigation projects using Wovwe Water User Association (WWUA) as a case study. The study thus examined the legal framework of WUAs in Malawi,...

Author(s): Douglas J. B. Gondwe and Aloyce W. Mayo

July 2018

Technology tracking: Understanding decisions to adopt, not to adopt, and dis-adopt household greywater filtration systems

Jordan is one of the world’s water-poorest countries. The demand for potable and productive water is ever increasing due to population growth, climate change, increasing numbers of refugees hosted by the country, as well as heightened demand from a growing economy and its different sectors. Household greywater filtration systems (HGWFS) are ideal for repurposing greywater, from wastewater into productive use for...

Author(s): Dessalegn Bezaiet, Shinan Kassam, Nargiza Ludgate and Ahmad Al Ulayyan

June 2018

Gender and youth challenges and opportunities in rural community: The case of Goregora, West Dembia district of North West Ethiopia

The study was conducted in Goregora, North West Ethiopia. The main objective of the study was to analyze gender role, gender and youth challenges and opportunities in the study area. Two stage sampling technique was employed. Male (32) and female (28), in total 60 sample respondents were interviewed. The sample size for this study was a function of the variability of the population characteristics, time and resource...

Author(s): Wondim Awoke Kassa and Kefale Eniyew  

June 2018

Participatory evaluation of the adaptability of released maize varieties to moisture stress areas of Dugda Dawa, southern Oromia

Maize is an essential food crop in Ethiopia. The experiment was conducted to establish and select adaptable maize variety/ies with better agronomic performance and to familiarize farmers with improved agronomic practices for moisture stress within the study area. The experiment was conducted on agro-pastoralists’ land by the researcher together with some selected members of agro-pastoralists. Three maize varieties...

Author(s): Natol Bakala, Tolasa Taye, Dirriba Mangistu, Belda Idao and Ahmed Mohamed  

May 2018

Impact of productive safety net program in rural community of Ethiopia: A review study

Ethiopia lunched Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) as social protection program since 2005 to tackle the causes of food insecurity. Even though, the country lunched the PSNP there are different challenges that hinder proper implementation of program for attaining intended impact on rural community. This paper seeks to review the impact of Ethiopia’s PSNP and its implementation challenges through qualitative...

Author(s): Wondim Awoke Kassa

May 2018

Pollinator habitat: A cooperative project between the landfill industry and blueberry growers

Bee decline is a threat worldwide. An extension project was initiated to make the general public, industry, and municipalities aware of this problem. This study demonstrated pollinator habitat suitable for Maine farms by developing cooperation between the Maine wild blueberry industry and a regional commercial waste landfill. The reason for involving the landfill industry was to demonstrate and encourage non-farm...

Author(s): Alison C. Dibble, Megan Leach and Frank Drummond

May 2018

Farmers’ knowledge and practice of organic vegetable cultivation: A field level study of two villages from Bangladesh

The study aimed to determine farmers’ knowledge and practice regarding organic vegetable cultivation as well as to ascertain farmers’ awareness concerning health and environmental aspects. The study was conducted at two villages of Kishoregonj District. The selected villages were Shadullar Char and Borobag Char. The total number of household was 800 in two villages. Among them 400 households were randomly...

Author(s): Farouque M. G. and Sarker M. A.

April 2018

The implications of smallholdings of water and land for the sustainability of a community based water management system in Oman

This paper investigates the implications of smallholder farming, that is, characteristic of a community based water management system in Oman known as a falaj (pl aflaj). The aflaj are naturally sustainable, and for centuries have provided water in an arid region, supporting agriculture and livelihoods. With over three thousand active aflaj in Oman, the typical falaj is small; conveying enough water to irrigate a...

Author(s): Dennis Powers and Abdullah Al Ghafri

April 2018

Determinants of smallholder farmers’ participation in seed producing cooperatives in Southern Zone of Tigray, Ethiopia

This research attempted to examine smallholder farmers’ participation in seed producing cooperatives with the objectives of assessing factors affecting farmers’ participation and identify the determinants of participation in seed producing cooperatives in southern zone of Tigray, Ethiopia. Both probability and non-probability sampling techniques were employed to select 192 sample households. Interview...

Author(s): Hagos Kidane, Tesfaye Lemma and Girmay Tesfay

March 2018

Knowledge and perception of farmers on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) in Ife-Central Local Government Area of Osun State: Implications for rural development

This study focused on knowledge and perception of farmers on information and communication technology (ICT) use in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. A pretested and validated interview schedule was used to source information from 150 farmers selected through a multi-stage sampling procedure. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools were used to analyze the data collected. The result revealed among...

Author(s): Ajayi A. O., Alabi O. S. and Okanlawon B. I.  

March 2018

Influence of social networks and social support on credit utilization in the Savings and Credit Cooperatives in Soroti District, Uganda

Microfinance models and programs tend to mimic local people’s support systems, especially their social networks, to ensure high repayment rate, efficient administration, and effective economic decisions. However, there is limited empirical evidence of their influence on credit use decisions. This paper examines the influence of social networks and social support on credit use decisions among SACCO members in...

Author(s): D. Alio, J. J. Okiror, J. G. Agea, F. B. Matsiko and W. Ekere  

February 2018

Agricultural knowledge, source and information system in central highland of Ethiopia

The study aims to assess the effectiveness of the current agricultural information management system and communication, and the gap between required and available information to extension personnel at central highland of Ethiopia. Consulting with head of districts agricultural office, 5 to 6 farmers training center (FTC) from Welmera and Ejera districts were selected randomly. 92 development agents and eleven subject...

Author(s): Beliyu Limenih

February 2018

Smallholder farmers’ experiences of climate variability and change on pineapple production in Ghana: Examining adaptation strategies for improved production

Climate variability and change presents enormous risk to agricultural production globally due to the impacts on yields. While global scholarship on climate change impacts and adaptation measures on agriculture has been well-documented, little is known about climate and pineapple production. This study examined smallholder pineapple farmers experiences of climate variability and change on production, as well as ranked...

Author(s): Portia A. Williams, Reuben T. Larbi, Isaac Yeboah and Godfred K. Frempong

January 2018

Assessment of on-farm storage of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and roselle grains (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in Niger

The objective of this study was an assessment of on-farm storage practices for Bambara groundnut and roselle grains in Niger. It is based on a random sample of 164 farmers producing both crops in the Dosso and Maradi regions using a semi-structured questionnaire. Analysis of the data used Probit regression and budgeting. Fifty four percent of respondents use some type of potentially hermetic container for storage of...

Author(s): B. MOUSSA, J. LOWENBERG-DEBOER and S. BOUREIMA

January 2018

Perceptions and choices of adaptation measures for climate change among teff (Eragrostis tef) farmers of Southeast Tigray, Ethiopia

This study was conducted in Southeast Tigray of Ethiopia using teff (Eragrostis tef) producing farmers. Teff production with regards to climate change has significant implications on food security and poverty in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to analyze factors influencing choice of adaptation strategies among teff farmers in Ethiopia. A stratified simple random sampling technique was employed to select 210 farm...

Author(s): Felix Moses Tembo, Tewodros Tadesse and Wales Singini

January 2018

Evaluation of frontline demonstration of herbicide (Pyroxsulam) for weed control in bread wheat in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

Frontline demonstration of herbicide was conducted in four districts of Tigray Region with objective of improving productivity of unit area and enhancing the income of farming community. Technology demonstration followed by perception assessment survey was conducted on the direct beneficiaries of the technology. A total of 40 farmers were selected purposively. The herbicide and improved bread wheat was offered. Yield,...

Author(s): Luchia Tekle, Hadush Hagos and Hadas Beyene

December 2017

Assessing the performance of an irrigation scheme in Okyereko, Ghana

Assessing the performance of an irrigation scheme is an important management function which will indicate the state of the scheme and suggest possible remedial measures to improve the effectiveness of the scheme. This study was conducted to assess the technical and agricultural performances of the Okyereko irrigation scheme in the Central Region of Ghana. Secondary data were collected from the scheme with respect to...

Author(s): K. E. Alordzinu, L. K. Sam-Amoah and J. D. Owusu-Sekyere

December 2017

Rural agricultural development and extension in Mexico: Analysis of public and private extension agents

Agricultural extension in Mexico significantly favors rural development and considers agriculture as a means of promoting economic development by solving problems associated with poverty and food security. The Mexican extension system, as in other Latin American countries, has been transformed into services provided by extensionists (also known as extension agents, or professional service providers). Due to the social,...

Author(s): Areli M. Zamora, Mercedes A. Jiménez Velázquez and José L. García Cué

December 2017

Effect of contract tobacco farming on the welfare of smallholder farmers in Angonia District, Mozambique

The use of contract farming, which constitutes a subject of current debates, especially on the issue of whether or not participating farmers improve their welfare and thus contribute to the local economy as an agricultural intervention is being adopted by many African countries including Mozambique. The Mozambique government adopted contract farming which is being implemented in the central region, mainly involving...

Author(s): Inácio Modesto Cipriano, Isaac Mambo and Charles Masangano

November 2017

Understanding actor innovation behavior: The application of network governance theory in agricultural innovation platforms

Innovation platforms are increasingly being used as a means of operationalizing innovation systems thinking. Agricultural innovation platforms are intended to bring together a number of stakeholders to promote an identified agricultural innovation. This is done through exchange of knowledge and other valuable resources to solve common problems. However, given the relatively new nature of innovation platforms, there is...

Author(s): Willy Turyahikayo, Frank B. Matsiko, John J. Okiror and Moses Buregyeya

November 2017

Harmonization of extension messages on climate smart agriculture in Malawi: Do we speak with one voice, and to whom?

Poor access to extension services has been one of the major challenges that smallholder farmers in Malawi face. Dissemination of agricultural technologies is mainly done through field level extension workers and lead farmers; however, such workers are few in number. In addition to this, there is lack of harmonization of messages, approaches and methods in extension delivery at field level. Using baseline cross-sectional...

Author(s): Tasokwa V. Kakota, Beston B. Maonga, Gry Synnevag, Charity Chonde and Michael Mainje

November 2017

Access to dry season water and small ruminants market integration in the Nadowli District of Upper West Region of Ghana

Against a background of disconnect between high demand for small ruminants and limited market integration of small ruminants in the interior savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of differential access to dry season water on small ruminant production and market integration in the Nadowli District of Ghana. The study obtained data from 389 small ruminant households...

Author(s): J. N. Adam, C. K. Freeman and E. Z. Dassah

October 2017

Utilization of climate change adaptation strategies among rice farmers in three states of Nigeria

The phenomenon of climate change has negative impacts on rice production in Nigeria as it lowers its output and reduces farmers’ income with a resultant depreciation in their livelihood. This accentuates the need for adaptation to climate change in order to reduce the growing dependency on rice importation, ensure food security as well as achieve a sustainable rice production system in Nigeria. The study therefore...

Author(s): Onyegbula C. B. and Oladeji J. O.

October 2017

Gender division of labor and rural women’s control over productive resources: The case of Dita and Mirab Abaya districts, Gamo Gofa zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR), Ethiopia

This study aimed to identify the existing gender division of labor, rural women’s control over productive resources and its effect on the stated poverty reduction strategy. Group discussion with key informants, field observation and interview with rural women was done to obtain primary data. The analysis was done by using SPSS software. Man biased division of labor, particularly on productive activities and...

Author(s): Yohannes Mare

October 2017

Management performance of farmers’ groups and its impact on membership: A prerequisite for group sustainability in Trinidad

The Government of Trinidad has implemented plans to promote the establishment of new farmers’ groups and also strengthen existing groups. It is expected that extension officers will work more with farmers in groups to increase extension-to-farmer interactions. Groups however, have not been sustainable in Trinidad. The study examined group members’ perceptions of how management functions are performed, and...

Author(s): David Ram, Wayne Ganpat and Lendel Kade Narine

September 2017

Malawi’s experiences with the implementation of pluralistic, demand-driven and decentralised agricultural extension policy

Clear agricultural policies and strategies are very crucial for influencing the performance of agricultural extension and advisory services (AEAS). Malawi has implemented its agricultural extension policy titled “agricultural extension in the new millennium: towards pluralistic and demand driven services in Malawi” for a period of seventeen years. The policy specified seven guiding principles which include...

Author(s): C. M. Masangano, D. Kambewa, N. Bosscher and P. Fatch

September 2017

Analysis of factors influencing information access among rural communities in Tanzania

Information access in rural communities of Tanzania is very important as it keeps its members aware of what happened and what happening in the world.  This importance can not be undermined since it helps farmers and other members of the rural community to make the right decision about their activities. Rural community areas are surrounded by many factors which in one way or another influence or hinder accessibility...

Author(s): Abswaidi Ramadhani, Anael Sam and Khamisi Kalegele

September 2017

Factors contributing to continued dependence on family food and income among graduate farmers of School of Agriculture for Family Independence (SAFI)

The main focus of this study was to investigate factors that contribute to continued dependence on family food and income among graduate farmers of School of Agriculture for Family Independence (SAFI) in Malawi. The study used two step sampling approach where purposive sampling was used in the first place to select SAFI graduates and secondly, systematic sampling was used to select 35 SAFI graduate farmer families for...

Author(s): Goodwell Ndiwo Banda, Jabulani Nyengere and Dennis Chinkhata

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